1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Antibiotic optimization in the difficult-to-treat patient with complicated intra-abdominal or complicated skin and skin structure infections: focus on tigecycline

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Complicated intra-abdominal and skin and skin structure infections are widely varied in presentation. These infections very often lead to an increase in length of hospital stay, with a resulting increase in costs and mortality. In addition, these infections may be caused by a wide variety of bacteria and are often polymicrobial with the possibility of the presence of antimicrobial-resistant strains, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, extended-spectrum β-lactamase strains ( Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae), and K. pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains. In combination with patients’ immunosuppression or comorbidities, the treatment and management options for initial therapy success are few. Tigecycline, a new glycylcyline antimicrobial from the tetracycline drug class, represents a viable option for the successful treatment of these infections. It has been shown to have activity against a wide variety of bacteria, including the antimicrobial-resistant strains. As with all tetracycline drugs, it is not recommended for pregnant or nursing women. The potential side effects are those typical of tetracycline drugs: nausea, vomiting, and headaches. Drug–drug interactions are not expected, and renal function monitoring is not necessary.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 31

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Clinical review: Drug metabolism and nonrenal clearance in acute kidney injury

          Decreased renal drug clearance is an obvious consequence of acute kidney injury (AKI). However, there is growing evidence to suggest that nonrenal drug clearance is also affected. Data derived from human and animal studies suggest that hepatic drug metabolism and transporter function are components of nonrenal clearance affected by AKI. Acute kidney injury may also impair the clearance of formed metabolites. The fact that AKI does not solely influence kidney function may have important implications for drug dosing, not only of renally eliminated drugs but also of those that are hepatically cleared. A review of the literature addressing the topic of drug metabolism and clearance alterations in AKI reveals that changes in nonrenal clearance are highly complicated and poorly studied, but they may be quite common. At present, our understanding of how AKI affects drug metabolism and nonrenal clearance is limited. However, based on the available evidence, clinicians should be cognizant that even hepatically eliminated drugs and formed drug metabolites may accumulate during AKI, and renal replacement therapy may affect nonrenal clearance as well as drug metabolite clearance.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Increasing trends in antimicrobial resistance among clinically important anaerobes and Bacteroides fragilis isolates causing nosocomial infections: emerging resistance to carbapenems.

            This study reports data on the susceptibilities to five commonly used antianaerobic agents of five clinically frequently encountered anaerobes from 2000 to 2007 and to Bacteroides fragilis isolates causing nosocomial infections from 1990 to 2006. There was a trend of decreasing susceptibilities of these anaerobes to ampicillin-sulbactam, cefmetazole, chloramphenicol, and clindamycin with time during the study period. The rates of susceptibility to clindamycin and cefmetazole for all clinical isolates of Bacteroides fragilis isolates were higher than those of isolates associated with nosocomial infections. The MICs of 207 anaerobic blood isolates collected in 2006 to 14 antimicrobial agents were determined by the agar dilution method. The rates of nonsusceptibility to imipenem and meropenem were 7% and 12% for B. fragilis isolates (n = 60), 7% and 3% for Bacteroides thetaiotamicron isolates (n = 30), 4% and 4% for Fusobacterium species (n = 27), 6% and 0% for Prevotella species (n = 16), 15% and 0% for Clostridium species (n = 28), and 0% and 0% for Peptostreptococcus species (n = 32). The rates of susceptibility to moxifloxacin were 90% for B. fragilis isolates, 87% for B. thetaiotaomicron isolates, 81% for Fusobacterium species, 75% for Prevotella species, 93% for Clostridium species, and 78% for Peptostreptococcus species. Thirty-six percent of Clostridium species and 12% of Peptostreptococcus species were not susceptible to metronidazole. Comparison of the data with the data from a previous survey from the same institute in 2002 revealed higher rates of nonsusceptibility to carbapenems, especially for B. fragilis, Fusobacterium species, and Prevotella species isolates. The high rates of nonsusceptibility to commonly used antianaerobic agents mandate our attention, and periodic monitoring of the trend of the resistance is crucial.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Tigecycline pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic update.

              This brief review summarizes recently published data on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of tigecycline in man. Significant pharmacokinetic data are now available from the studies of infected patients, as is information on tissue distribution. Importantly, drug exposure-response relationships have been established for complicated skin and skin structure infections and intra-abdominal infection. These studies highlight the difficulties of undertaking pharmacodynamic studies in humans where account must be taken of both mixed pathogen infections and the potential impact of surgery. These data help to define the clinical role for tigecycline.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-6336
                1178-203X
                2010
                2010
                7 September 2010
                : 6
                : 419-430
                Affiliations
                Department of Biomedical Sciences, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Wanda C Reygaert, Oakland University William Beaumont School of Medicine, Rochester, MI 48309, USA, Tel +1 248 370 2709, Fax +1 248 370 4060, Email reygaert@ 123456oakland.edu
                Article
                tcrm-6-419
                2940750
                20856688
                © 2010 Reygaert, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Review

                Comments

                Comment on this article