Percutaneous transvenous mitral commissurotomy (PTMC) has revolutionized the treatment of patients with symptomatic mitral stenosis and is now established as the procedure of choice. Despite high technical expertise in PTMC using the Inoue balloon, mitral regurgitation (MR) remains a major procedure-related complication. We retrospectively analyzed our data of PTMC using the Inoue balloon with regard to the incidence of MR, its likely causative mechanism, and follow up of these patients. During the past ten years, PTMC was performed in 3,650 patients (median age 26 years; range: 8-76 years), of whom 910 (24.9%) were juveniles. Preprocedure mitral valve area (MVA) was 0.9 +/- 0.4 cm2 (range: 0.3-1.3 cm2); MR was mild in 1,396 cases (38.2%), moderate in 394 (10.8%) and severe in 22 (0.6%). None of the patients was rejected on the basis of echocardiographic score. The procedure was successful in 3,276 (89.8%), with post-procedure MVA of 1.7 +/- 0.6 cm2 (range: 1.4-2.6 cm2), and without development of any major complication. Severe MR was seen in 120 patients (3.3%), of whom 66 (1.8%) required urgent mitral valve replacement (MVR). Echocardiography in these latter patients showed leaflet rupture in 48 (72.7%), chordal rupture in 12 (18.2%) and excessive commissural tear in six (9.1%). Fifty-four patients (1.5%) with severe MR post PTMC were followed with medical treatment; echocardiography in these patients revealed chordal rupture in 40 (74.1%) and excessive commissural tear in 14 (25.9%). Follow up data were available in 49 patients (1.3%); 30 (0.8%) required MVR and 19 (0.5%) were in NYHA class II at a median follow up of 24 months. Moderate MR was seen in 188 cases (5.1%), with predominant causative mechanisms of excessive commissural tear in 120 (63.8%) and chordal rupture in 68 (36.2%). Severity of MR worsened in 30 cases (0.8%), of which 20 (0.6%) required elective MVR on follow up. MR decreased in 58 patients (1.6%), in whom excessive commissural tear was the causative mechanism. Significant MR (moderate or severe) after PTMC was seen in 308 patients (8.4%), of whom 116 (3.2%) required MVR urgently or on follow up. All patients with leaflet rupture during PTMC developed severe MR and required urgent MVR. There was a tendency for the severity of MR to decrease with time in cases where excessive commissural tear was the causative mechanism.