Cycling rats had their spinal cord transected (SCT) at the T5 vertebral level and/or were unilaterally ovariectomized (ULO) at metestrus, and allowed to cycle either for one estrous cycle or for 19 days. Estrous cycle lengths were increased following SCT in all animals. After one cycle, SCT rats showed no effect on other reproductive parameters studied. In contrast, after 19 days decreases in body and ovarian weights, and number of follicles >448 μm and ova shed per ovary were observed. When ULO was performed in conjunction with SCT, compensatory ovarian responses occurred. The data demonstrate that an intact adrenergic system is necessary for normal ovarian function in the intact rat but not necessary for compensatory ovarian responses to occur following ULO.