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      Theranostic metal–organic framework core–shell composites for magnetic resonance imaging and drug delivery†


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          A novel multifunctional MOF-based composite with good biocompatibility, high drug loading capacity, sustained drug release and outstanding MR imaging capability was developed through a simple in situ growth procedure for simultaneous drug delivery and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging.


          Metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown great potential in designing theranostic probes for cancer diagnosis and therapy due to their unique properties, including versatile structures and composition, tunable particle and pore size, enormous porosity, high surface area, and intrinsic biodegradability. In this study, we demonstrate novel MOF-based theranostic Fe 3O 4@UiO-66 core–shell composites constructed by in situ growth of a UiO-66 MOF shell on a Fe 3O 4 core for simultaneous drug delivery and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. In the composites, the UiO-66 shell is devoted for encapsulating the drug, whereas the Fe 3O 4 core serves as a MR contrast agent. The Fe 3O 4@UiO-66 core–shell composites show good biocompatibility, high drug loading capacity, sustained drug release, and outstanding MR imaging capability, as well as effective chemotherapeutic efficacy, demonstrating the feasibility of designing theranostic Fe 3O 4@UiO-66 core–shell composites for cancer diagnosis and therapy.

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          Metal-organic frameworks in biomedicine.

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            Metal-organic frameworks as efficient materials for drug delivery.

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              Postsynthetic modifications of iron-carboxylate nanoscale metal-organic frameworks for imaging and drug delivery.

              Fe(III)-carboxylate nanoscale metal-organic frameworks (NMOFs) with the MIL-101 structure were synthesized using a solvothermal technique with microwave heating. The approximately 200 nm particles were characterized using a variety of methods, including SEM, PXRD, nitrogen adsorption measurements, TGA, and EDX. By replacing a percentage of the bridging ligand (terephthalic acid) with 2-amino terephthalic acid, amine groups were incorporated into the framework to provide sites for covalent attachment of biologically relevant cargoes while still maintaining the MIL-101 structure. In proof-of-concept experiments, an optical contrast agent (a BODIPY dye) and an ethoxysuccinato-cisplatin anticancer prodrug were successfully incorporated into the Fe(III)-carboxylate NMOFs via postsynthetic modifications of the as-synthesized particles. These cargoes are released upon the degradation of the NMOF frameworks, and the rate of cargo release was controlled by coating the NMOF particles with a silica shell. Potential utility of the new NMOF-based nanodelivery vehicles for optical imaging and anticancer therapy was demonstrated in vitro using HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells.

                Author and article information

                Chem Sci
                Chem Sci
                Chemical Science
                Royal Society of Chemistry
                1 August 2016
                26 April 2016
                : 7
                : 8
                : 5294-5301
                [a ] School of Medical Imaging , Tianjin Medical University , Tianjin 300203 , China . Email: fuyanyan365@ 123456163.com
                [b ] College of Chemistry , Research Center for Analytical Sciences , State Key Laboratory of Medicinal Chemical Biology (Nankai University) , Tianjin Key Laboratory of Molecular Recognition and Biosensing, and Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering (Tianjin) , Nankai University , 94 Weijin Road , Tianjin 300071 , China
                [c ] Department of Radiology , Tianjin Key Laboratory of Functional Imaging , Tianjin Medical University General Hospital , Tianjin 300052 , China
                Author notes

                ‡These authors contributed equally to this work.

                This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016

                This article is freely available. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 3.0 Unported Licence (CC BY-NC 3.0)



                †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials, experimental details and characterization. See DOI: 10.1039/c6sc01359g


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