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      World citation and collaboration networks: uncovering the role of geography in science

      1 , 1 , a , 1 , 2

      Scientific Reports

      Nature Publishing Group

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          Abstract

          Modern information and communication technologies, especially the Internet, have diminished the role of spatial distances and territorial boundaries on the access and transmissibility of information. This has enabled scientists for closer collaboration and internationalization. Nevertheless, geography remains an important factor affecting the dynamics of science. Here we present a systematic analysis of citation and collaboration networks between cities and countries, by assigning papers to the geographic locations of their authors’ affiliations. The citation flows as well as the collaboration strengths between cities decrease with the distance between them and follow gravity laws. In addition, the total research impact of a country grows linearly with the amount of national funding for research & development. However, the average impact reveals a peculiar threshold effect: the scientific output of a country may reach an impact larger than the world average only if the country invests more than about 100,000 USD per researcher annually.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Zipf's Law for Cities: An Explanation

           X. Gabaix (1999)
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            The Impact of Research Collaboration on Scientific Productivity

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              Geographic routing in social networks.

              We live in a "small world," where two arbitrary people are likely connected by a short chain of intermediate friends. With scant information about a target individual, people can successively forward a message along such a chain. Experimental studies have verified this property in real social networks, and theoretical models have been advanced to explain it. However, existing theoretical models have not been shown to capture behavior in real-world social networks. Here, we introduce a richer model relating geography and social-network friendship, in which the probability of befriending a particular person is inversely proportional to the number of closer people. In a large social network, we show that one-third of the friendships are independent of geography and the remainder exhibit the proposed relationship. Further, we prove analytically that short chains can be discovered in every network exhibiting the relationship.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                29 November 2012
                2012
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University School of Science , P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076, Finland
                [2 ]Complex Networks and Systems Lagrange Laboratory, Institute for Scientific Interchange (ISI) , Torino, Italy
                Author notes
                Article
                srep00902
                10.1038/srep00902
                3509350
                23198092
                Copyright © 2012, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

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