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      All-cause mortality and three aspects of social relationships: an eight-year follow-up of older adults from one entire Korean village

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          Abstract

          Various aspects of social relationships have been examined as risk factors for mortality. In particular, most research has focused on either loneliness or social disengagement. We aimed to extend the current research by adding a group-level segregation measure utilizing the whole social network of one entire village in South Korea. The analyses were based on the Korean Social Life, Health and Aging Project data collected over eight years across five waves. Of the 679 old adults who participated throughout the entire project (to wave 5), 63 were confirmed as deceased. All three aspects of social relationships examined, loneliness, social disengagement, and group-level segregation, were associated with mortality in the traditional Cox proportional hazard model without considering health-related time-varying covariates. However, a Cox marginal structural model, a counterfactual statistical measure that is designed to control for censoring bias due to sample attrition over the eight years and time-varying confounding variables, revealed that only group-level segregation was associated with mortality. Our results strongly suggest that more attention is needed on group-level segregation for mortality studies, as well as on well-known individual-level risk factors, including social disengagement and loneliness. All methods were carried out in accordance with relevant guidelines and regulations.

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          The CES-D Scale: A Self-Report Depression Scale for Research in the General Population

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            Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis.

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              Loneliness and social isolation as risk factors for mortality: a meta-analytic review.

              Actual and perceived social isolation are both associated with increased risk for early mortality. In this meta-analytic review, our objective is to establish the overall and relative magnitude of social isolation and loneliness and to examine possible moderators. We conducted a literature search of studies (January 1980 to February 2014) using MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and Google Scholar. The included studies provided quantitative data on mortality as affected by loneliness, social isolation, or living alone. Across studies in which several possible confounds were statistically controlled for, the weighted average effect sizes were as follows: social isolation odds ratio (OR) = 1.29, loneliness OR = 1.26, and living alone OR = 1.32, corresponding to an average of 29%, 26%, and 32% increased likelihood of mortality, respectively. We found no differences between measures of objective and subjective social isolation. Results remain consistent across gender, length of follow-up, and world region, but initial health status has an influence on the findings. Results also differ across participant age, with social deficits being more predictive of death in samples with an average age younger than 65 years. Overall, the influence of both objective and subjective social isolation on risk for mortality is comparable with well-established risk factors for mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yoosik@yonsei.ac.kr
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                11 January 2021
                11 January 2021
                2021
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.15444.30, ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5454, Department of Sociology, , Yonsei University, ; Seoul, 03722 Republic of Korea
                [2 ]GRID grid.31501.36, ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Medical Research Center, , Seoul National University, ; Seoul, 03080 Republic of Korea
                Article
                80684
                10.1038/s41598-020-80684-5
                7801415
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003725, National Research Foundation of Korea;
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                © The Author(s) 2021

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                epidemiology, risk factors, human behaviour

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