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      Comparative genome analysis reveals key genetic factors associated with probiotic property in Enterococcus faecium strains


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          Enterococcus faecium though commensal in the human gut, few strains provide a beneficial effect to humans as probiotics while few are responsible for the nosocomial infection. Comparative genomics of E. faecium can decipher the genomic differences responsible for probiotic, pathogenic and non-pathogenic properties. In this study, we compared E. faecium strain 17OM39 with a marketed probiotic, non-pathogenic non-probiotic (NPNP) and pathogenic strains.


          E. faecium 17OM39 was found to be closely related with marketed probiotic strain T110 based on core genome analysis. Strain 17OM39 was devoid of known vancomycin, tetracycline resistance and functional virulence genes. Moreover, E. faecium 17OM39 genome was found to be more stable due to the absence of frequently found transposable elements. Genes imparting beneficial functional properties were observed to be present in marketed probiotic T110 and 17OM39 strains. Genes associated with colonization and survival within gastrointestinal tract was also detected across all the strains.


          Beyond shared genetic features; this study particularly identified genes that are responsible for imparting probiotic, non-pathogenic and pathogenic features to the strains of E. faecium. Higher genomic stability, absence of known virulence factors and antibiotic resistance genes and close genomic relatedness with marketed probiotics makes E. faecium 17OM39 a potential probiotic candidate. The work presented here demonstrates that comparative genome analyses can be applied to large numbers of genomes, to find potential probiotic candidates.

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          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12864-018-5043-9) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          ISfinder: the reference centre for bacterial insertion sequences

          ISfinder () is a dedicated database for bacterial insertion sequences (ISs). It has superseded the Stanford reference center. One of its functions is to assign IS names and to provide a focal point for a coherent nomenclature. It is also the repository for ISs. Each new IS is indexed together with information such as its DNA sequence and open reading frames or potential coding sequences, the sequence of the ends of the element and target sites, its origin and distribution together with a bibliography where available. Another objective is to continuously monitor ISs to provide updated comprehensive groupings or families and to provide some insight into their phylogenies. The site also contains extensive background information on ISs and transposons in general. Online tools are gradually being added. At present an online Blast facility against the entire bank is available. But additional features will include alignment capability, PsiBLAST and HMM profiles. ISfinder also includes a section on bacterial genomes and is involved in annotating the IS content of these genomes. Finally, this database is currently recommended by several microbiology journals for registration of new IS elements before their publication.
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            The comprehensive antibiotic resistance database.

            The field of antibiotic drug discovery and the monitoring of new antibiotic resistance elements have yet to fully exploit the power of the genome revolution. Despite the fact that the first genomes sequenced of free living organisms were those of bacteria, there have been few specialized bioinformatic tools developed to mine the growing amount of genomic data associated with pathogens. In particular, there are few tools to study the genetics and genomics of antibiotic resistance and how it impacts bacterial populations, ecology, and the clinic. We have initiated development of such tools in the form of the Comprehensive Antibiotic Research Database (CARD; http://arpcard.mcmaster.ca). The CARD integrates disparate molecular and sequence data, provides a unique organizing principle in the form of the Antibiotic Resistance Ontology (ARO), and can quickly identify putative antibiotic resistance genes in new unannotated genome sequences. This unique platform provides an informatic tool that bridges antibiotic resistance concerns in health care, agriculture, and the environment.
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              The SEED and the Rapid Annotation of microbial genomes using Subsystems Technology (RAST)

              In 2004, the SEED (http://pubseed.theseed.org/) was created to provide consistent and accurate genome annotations across thousands of genomes and as a platform for discovering and developing de novo annotations. The SEED is a constantly updated integration of genomic data with a genome database, web front end, API and server scripts. It is used by many scientists for predicting gene functions and discovering new pathways. In addition to being a powerful database for bioinformatics research, the SEED also houses subsystems (collections of functionally related protein families) and their derived FIGfams (protein families), which represent the core of the RAST annotation engine (http://rast.nmpdr.org/). When a new genome is submitted to RAST, genes are called and their annotations are made by comparison to the FIGfam collection. If the genome is made public, it is then housed within the SEED and its proteins populate the FIGfam collection. This annotation cycle has proven to be a robust and scalable solution to the problem of annotating the exponentially increasing number of genomes. To date, >12 000 users worldwide have annotated >60 000 distinct genomes using RAST. Here we describe the interconnectedness of the SEED database and RAST, the RAST annotation pipeline and updates to both resources.

                Author and article information

                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central (London )
                4 September 2018
                4 September 2018
                : 19
                : 652
                [1 ]GRID grid.419235.8, National Centre for Microbial Resource (NCMR), National Centre for Cell Science (NCCS), ; Pune, Maharashtra 411021 India
                [2 ]Department of Biotechnology, Basaveshwar Engineering College, Bagalkot, Karnataka 587102 India
                Author information
                © The Author(s). 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 19 April 2018
                : 27 August 2018
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001407, Department of Biotechnology , Ministry of Science and Technology;
                Award ID: BT/Coord.II/01/03/2016
                Award Recipient :
                Research Article
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                © The Author(s) 2018

                non-pathogenic,pathogenic,indian,comparative genome analysis,in-silico analysis
                non-pathogenic, pathogenic, indian, comparative genome analysis, in-silico analysis


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