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      Landscape response to progressive tectonic and climatic forcing in NW Borneo: Implications for geological and geomorphic controls on flood hazard

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          Abstract

          Empirical models have simulated the consequences of uplift and orographic-precipitation on the evolution of orogens whereas the effects of these forcings on ridgelines and consequent topography of natural landscapes remain equivocal. Here we demonstrate the feedback of a terrestrial landscape in NW Borneo subject to uplift and precipitation gradient owing to orographic effect, and leading to less-predictable flooding and irreversible damages to life and property. Disequilibrium in a large catchment recording the lowest rainfall rates in Borneo, and adjacent drainage basins as determined through χ, a proxy for steady–state channel elevation, is shown to result in dynamic migration of water divide from the windward-side of the orogen towards the leeward-side to attain equilibrium. Loss of drainage area in the leeward-side reduces erosion rates with progressive shortening resulting in an unstable landscape with tectonic uplift, gravity faults and debris flows. 14C dating of exhumed cut-and-fill terraces reveal a Mid–Pleistocene age, suggesting tectonic events in the trend of exhumation rates (>7 mm a −1) estimated by thermochronology, and confirmed by morphotectonic and sedimentological analyses. Our study suggests that divide migration leads to lowered erosion rates, channel narrowing, and sediment accretion in intermontane basins on the leeward-side ultimately resulting in enhanced flooding.

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          Most cited references 69

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          HYPSOMETRIC (AREA-ALTITUDE) ANALYSIS OF EROSIONAL TOPOGRAPHY

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            EVOLUTION OF DRAINAGE SYSTEMS AND SLOPES IN BADLANDS AT PERTH AMBOY, NEW JERSEY

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              A review of the braided-river depositional environment

               Andrew Miall (1977)
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                dmenier5@gmail.com
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                28 March 2017
                28 March 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Université Bretagne Sud, Laboratoire Géosciences Océan, UMR CNRS 6538, rue Yves, Mainguy, 56017 Vannes cedex France
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000121105547, GRID grid.5607.4, , Ecole Normale Supérieure UMR 8538 du CNRS, ; 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris, Cedex 05 France
                [3 ]Total E&P MENA Dubai, The H-Dubai Office Tower, 24th Floor, 1, Sheikh Zayed Road, P.O. Box, 116538 Dubai, United Arab Emirates
                [4 ]Université de Caen. UMR 6143 M2C, Morphodynamique continentale et côtière 24, Rue des tilleuls, 14000 Caen cedex France
                [5 ]Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS Faculty of Geosciences & Petroleum Engineering, Bandar Seri Iskandar, 31750 Tronoh, Perak, Malaysia
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0538 1156, GRID grid.412490.a, , Periyar University Department of Geology, ; 636011 Salem, India
                [7 ]University of Adelaide, Department of Earth Sciences, Adelaide, SA 5005 Australia
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2156 409X, GRID grid.162107.3, , China University of Geosciences, ; Beijing School of Earth Sciences and Resources 29 Xueyuan Road, Beijing, 100083 China
                Article
                620
                10.1038/s41598-017-00620-y
                5428868
                28352115
                © The Author(s) 2017

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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