This study compares the variation of richness, abundance and diversity of butterfly species along an atmospheric pollution gradient and during different seasons in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico. Likewise, we analyse the influence of environmental variables on the abundance and richness of butterfly species and quantify the indicator species for each atmospheric pollution category. Based on spatial analysis of the main atmospheric pollutants and the vegetation cover conditions, four permanent sampling sites were delimited. The sampling was carried out monthly in each of the sites using aerial entomological nets and ten Van Someren-Rydon traps during May 2018 to April 2019. A total of 8,570 specimens belonging to six families and 209 species were collected. Both species richness and abundance were significantly different between all sites, except for the comparison between the moderate contamination site and the high contamination site; diversity decreased significantly with increasing levels of contamination. The seasonality effect was absent on species richness; however, for species abundance the differences between dry season and rainy season were significant in each site excepting the moderate contamination site. Regarding diversity, the seasonal effect showed different distribution patterns according to each order. Relative humidity, vegetation cover and three pollution variables were highly correlated with both abundance and species richness. From the total number of species found, only 47 had a significant indicator value. This study constitutes the first faunistic contribution of butterflies as indicators of the environmental quality of urban areas in Mexico, which will help in the development of strategies for the management, planning and conservation of urban biodiversity.