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      Composition and diversity of butterflies (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea) along an atmospheric pollution gradient in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico

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          Abstract

          This study compares the variation of richness, abundance and diversity of butterfly species along an atmospheric pollution gradient and during different seasons in the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico. Likewise, we analyse the influence of environmental variables on the abundance and richness of butterfly species and quantify the indicator species for each atmospheric pollution category. Based on spatial analysis of the main atmospheric pollutants and the vegetation cover conditions, four permanent sampling sites were delimited. The sampling was carried out monthly in each of the sites using aerial entomological nets and ten Van Someren-Rydon traps during May 2018 to April 2019. A total of 8,570 specimens belonging to six families and 209 species were collected. Both species richness and abundance were significantly different between all sites, except for the comparison between the moderate contamination site and the high contamination site; diversity decreased significantly with increasing levels of contamination. The seasonality effect was absent on species richness; however, for species abundance the differences between dry season and rainy season were significant in each site excepting the moderate contamination site. Regarding diversity, the seasonal effect showed different distribution patterns according to each order. Relative humidity, vegetation cover and three pollution variables were highly correlated with both abundance and species richness. From the total number of species found, only 47 had a significant indicator value. This study constitutes the first faunistic contribution of butterflies as indicators of the environmental quality of urban areas in Mexico, which will help in the development of strategies for the management, planning and conservation of urban biodiversity.

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          Most cited references 93

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          Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals

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            Butterfly diversity and human land use: Species assemblages along an urban grandient

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              Restoration of Fragmented Landscapes for the Conservation of Birds: A General Framework and Specific Recommendations for Urbanizing Landscapes

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Data curationRole: Formal analysisRole: MethodologyRole: Writing - original draft
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Methodology
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Methodology
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing - review and editing
                Role: Formal analysisRole: Writing - review and editing
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2021
                14 May 2021
                : 1037
                : 73-103
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Facultad de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ap. Postal 41, Linares, Nuevo León, C.P. 67700, México Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León Linares Mexico
                [2 ] Tecnológico Nacional de México - Instituto Tecnológico de Cd. Victoria. Boulevard Emilio Portes Gil No.1301, C.P. 87010, Ciudad Victoria, Tamaulipas, México Instituto Tecnológico de Cd. Victoria Ciudad Victoria Mexico
                [3 ] Fundación para el Desarrollo de la Cordillera Volcánica Central (Fundecor), Costa Rica e Instituto Internacional para la Conservación y Manejo de la Vida Silvestre (Icomvis), Universidad Nacional, Heredia, Costa Rica Universidad Nacional Heredia Costa Rica
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Edmar Meléndez-Jaramillo ( edmel.jar09@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: M. Wiemers

                Article
                66001
                10.3897/zookeys.1037.66001
                8139943
                34054315
                Edmar Meléndez-Jaramillo, César Martín Cantú-Ayala, Eduardo Javier Treviño-Garza, Uriel Jeshua Sánchez-Reyes, Bernal Herrera-Fernández

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Hesperioidea
                Lepidoptera
                Papilionoidea
                Ecology & Environmental sciences
                Environmental pollution
                Urban ecology
                Mexico
                North America

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