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      Relationship between Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness and Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis in Type 2 Diabetes with Hypertension

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          Aim: To assess the relation between intima-media thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery and atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) ≧50% (one or both renal arteries) in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension. Methods: We performed a retrospective study of type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension who underwent magnetic resonance angiography or digital subtraction angiography for renal artery stenosis at the National Cardiovascular Center or at the Nagasaki Municipal Medical Center between May 1999 and May 2001. Renal artery stenosis was defined as a narrowing of the artery to at least 50% of normal. Thirty type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension (17 men and 13 women, mean age 65.4 ± 7.6 years) were identified and divided into two groups: those with ARAS in one or both renal arteries (n = 15) and those without ARAS (n = 15). We used high-resolution B-mode ultrasonography to measure the IMT of the common carotid artery. Results: With and without ARAS were 9 men and 6 women (mean age 65.0 ± 7.6 years) and 8 men and 7 women (mean age 65.7 ± 6.8 years), respectively. The IMT of the carotid artery was significantly greater in patients with ARAS than in patients without ARAS (1.07 ± 0.10 vs. 0.84 ± 0.12 mm, p < 0.01). However, the only clinical findings that statistically significantly differed were systolic blood pressure and plasma renin activity. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the measurement of the IMT of the carotid artery may be useful as a noninvasive screening method for the defection of ARAS even in asymptomatic type 2 diabetic patients.

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          Renal-artery stenosis.

           S Textor,  R Safian (2001)
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            Renal duplex sonography: evaluation of clinical utility.

            With the exception of conventional angiography, no previously proposed screening test has the necessary sensitivity/specificity to guide further evaluation for correctable renovascular disease. Recently, renal duplex sonography has been suggested as a useful substitute in such screening for renovascular disease. This report analyzes our data collected over the past 10 months in evaluation of renal duplex sonography to examine its diagnostic value. The study population for renal duplex sonography validity analysis consisted of 74 consecutive patients who had 77 comparative renal duplex sonography and standard angiographic studies of the arterial anatomy to 148 kidneys. Renal duplex sonography results from six kidneys (4%) were considered inadequate for interpretation. This study population contained 26 patients (35%) with severe renal insufficiency (mean 3.6 mg/dl) and 67 hypertension (91%). Fourteen patients (19%) had 20 kidneys with multiple renal arteries. Bilateral disease was present in 22 of the 44 patients with significant renovascular disease. Renal duplex sonography correctly identified the presence of renovascular disease in 41 of 44 patients with angiographically proven lesions, and renovascular disease was not identified in any patient free of disease. When single renal arteries were present (122 kidneys), renal duplex sonography provided 93% sensitivity, 98% specificity, 98% positive predictive value, 94% negative predictive value, and an overall accuracy of 96%. These results were adversely affected when kidneys with multiple (polar) renal arteries were examined. Although the end diastolic ratio was inversely correlated with serum creatinine (r = -0.3073, p = 0.009), low end diastolic ratio in 35 patients submitted to renovascular reconstruction did not preclude beneficial blood pressure or renal function response. We conclude from this analysis that renal duplex sonography can be a valuable screening test in the search for correctable renovascular disease causing global renal ischemia and secondary renal insufficiency (ischemic nephropathy). Renal duplex sonography does not, however, exclude polar vessel renovascular disease causing hypertension alone nor does it predict hypertension or renal function response after correction of renovascular disease.
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              The role of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes in causing renal vascular disease.

               N. E. Crook (1999)
              The Jackson Heart Study will be an epidemiological study of African Americans in Jackson, Mississippi, to identify risk factors for development and progression of cardiovascular disease. One of the potential risk factors to be assessed in this study is renal vascular disease. Atherosclerotic renal vascular disease is a disease of the elderly, is predominantly seen in white people, and is strongly associated with diffuse atherosclerotic disease and high-grade hypertensive retinopathy. Patients with ischemic nephropathy may constitute up to 16% of new dialysis patients and die more quickly while on renal replacement therapy. Although often not present, hypertension is a commonly observed consequence (but probably not a cause) of renal vascular disease, and the control of blood pressure may not halt the progression of the disease. Approximately 20-25% of patients with moderate to severe renal artery stenosis will be diabetic. Diabetic patients fair less well with intervention and have a higher progression to end-stage renal disease or death. Obesity is not commonly seen in patients with renal vascular disease. The Jackson Heart Study may be able to assess the true incidence of atherosclerotic renal vascular disease in African Americans and its impact of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                08 November 2002
                : 25
                : 4
                : 255-259
                aDivision of Hypertension and Nephrology, Department of Medicine, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, bDivision of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, Nagasaki Municipal Medical Center, Nagasaki, and c2nd Department of Internal Medicine, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Nagasaki, Japan
                66344 Kidney Blood Press Res 2002;25:255–259
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 1, References: 28, Pages: 5
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