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      Update on Clinical Aspects of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

      1 , 1

      New England Journal of Medicine

      Massachusetts Medical Society

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          Most cited references 39

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          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in non-smokers.

          Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Tobacco smoking is established as a major risk factor, but emerging evidence suggests that other risk factors are important, especially in developing countries. An estimated 25-45% of patients with COPD have never smoked; the burden of non-smoking COPD is therefore much higher than previously believed. About 3 billion people, half the worldwide population, are exposed to smoke from biomass fuel compared with 1.01 billion people who smoke tobacco, which suggests that exposure to biomass smoke might be the biggest risk factor for COPD globally. We review the evidence for the association of COPD with biomass fuel, occupational exposure to dusts and gases, history of pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic asthma, respiratory-tract infections during childhood, outdoor air pollution, and poor socioeconomic status.
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            Prevalence and outcomes of diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease in COPD.

            Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with important chronic comorbid diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes and hypertension. The present study analysed data from 20,296 subjects aged > or =45 yrs at baseline in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study (ARIC) and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). The sample was stratified based on baseline lung function data, according to modified Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) criteria. Comorbid disease at baseline and death and hospitalisations over a 5-yr follow-up were then searched for. Lung function impairment was found to be associated with more comorbid disease. In logistic regression models adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, body mass index and education, subjects with GOLD stage 3 or 4 COPD had a higher prevalence of diabetes (odds ratio (OR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-1.9), hypertension (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-1.9) and cardiovascular disease (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.9-3.0). Comorbid disease was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation and mortality that was worse in people with impaired lung function. Lung function impairment is associated with a higher risk of comorbid disease, which contributes to a higher risk of adverse outcomes of mortality and hospitalisations.
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              Endotyping asthma: new insights into key pathogenic mechanisms in a complex, heterogeneous disease.

              Clinical asthma is very widely assumed to be the net result of excessive inflammation driven by aberrant T-helper-2 (Th2) immunity that leads to inflamed, remodelled airways and then functional derangement that, in turn, causes symptoms. This notion of disease is actually poorly supported by data, and there are substantial discrepancies and very poor correlation between inflammation, damage, functional impairment, and degree of symptoms. Furthermore, this problem is compounded by the poor understanding of the heterogeneity of clinical disease. Failure to recognise and discover the underlying mechanisms of these major variants or endotypes of asthma is, arguably, the major intellectual limitation to progress at present. Fortunately, both clinical research and animal models are very well suited to dissecting the cellular and molecular basis of disease endotypes. This approach is already suggesting entirely novel pathways to disease-eg, alternative macrophage specification, steroid refractory innate immunity, the interleukin-17-regulatory T-cell axis, epidermal growth factor receptor co-amplification, and Th2-mimicking but non-T-cell, interleukins 18 and 33 dependent processes that can offer unexpected therapeutic opportunities for specific patient endotypes.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New England Journal of Medicine
                N Engl J Med
                Massachusetts Medical Society
                0028-4793
                1533-4406
                September 26 2019
                September 26 2019
                : 381
                : 13
                : 1257-1266
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Pulmonary and Critical Care Division, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, and Harvard Medical School — both in Boston (B.R.C.); and the National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London (J.A.W.).
                Article
                10.1056/NEJMra1900500
                © 2019
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