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      Preparation, characterization, and potential application of chitosan, chitosan derivatives, and chitosan metal nanoparticles in pharmaceutical drug delivery

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          Abstract

          Naturally occurring polymers, particularly of the polysaccharide type, have been used pharmaceutically for the delivery of a wide variety of therapeutic agents. Chitosan, the second abundant naturally occurring polysaccharide next to cellulose, is a biocompatible and biodegradable mucoadhesive polymer that has been extensively used in the preparation of micro-as well as nanoparticles. The prepared particles have been exploited as a potential carrier for different therapeutic agents such as peptides, proteins, vaccines, DNA, and drugs for parenteral and nonparenteral administration. Therapeutic agent-loaded chitosan micro- or nanoparticles were found to be more stable, permeable, and bioactive. In this review, we are highlighting the different methods of preparation and characterization of chitosan micro- and nanoparticles, while reviewing the pharmaceutical applications of these particles in drug delivery. Moreover, the roles of chitosan derivatives and chitosan metal nanoparticles in drug delivery have been illustrated.

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          Most cited references 204

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          Preparation and antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles.

           Susan C. Hu,  L Qi,  Z Xu (2004)
          Chitosan nanoparticles, such as those prepared in this study, may exhibit potential antibacterial activity as their unique character. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles against various microorganisms. Chitosan nanoparticles were prepared based on the ionic gelation of chitosan with tripolyphosphate anions. Copper ions were adsorbed onto the chitosan nanoparticles mainly by ion-exchange resins and surface chelation to form copper-loaded nanoparticles. The physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles were determined by size and zeta potential analysis, atomic force microscopy (AFM), FTIR analysis, and XRD pattern. The antibacterial activity of chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles against E. coli, S. choleraesuis, S. typhimurium, and S. aureus was evaluated by calculation of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Results show that chitosan nanoparticles and copper-loaded nanoparticles could inhibit the growth of various bacteria tested. Their MIC values were less than 0.25 microg/mL, and the MBC values of nanoparticles reached 1 microg/mL. AFM revealed that the exposure of S. choleraesuis to the chitosan nanoparticles led to the disruption of cell membranes and the leakage of cytoplasm.
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            Protein release from alginate matrices.

             W Gombotz (1998)
            There are a variety of both natural and synthetic polymeric systems that have been investigated for the controlled release of proteins. Many of the procedures employed to incorporate proteins into a polymeric matrix can be harsh and often cause denaturation of the active agent. Alginate, a naturally occurring biopolymer extracted from brown algae (kelp), has several unique properties that have enabled it to be used as a matrix for the entrapment and/or delivery of a variety of biological agents. Alginate polymers are a family of linear unbranched polysaccharides which contain varying amounts of 1,4'-linked beta-D-mannuronic acid and alpha-L-guluronic acid residues. The residues may vary widely in composition and sequence and are arranged in a pattern of blocks along the chain. Alginate can be ionically crosslinked by the addition of divalent cations in aqueous solution. The relatively mild gelation process has enabled not only proteins, but cells and DNA to be incorporated into alginate matrices with retention of full biological activity. Furthermore, by selection of the type of alginate and coating agent, the pore size, degradation rate, and ultimately release kinetics can be controlled. Gels of different morphologies can be prepared including large block matrices, large beads (>1 mm in diameter) and microbeads (<0.2 mm in diameter). In situ gelling systems have also been made by the application of alginate to the cornea, or on the surfaces of wounds. Alginate is a bioadhesive polymer which can be advantageous for the site specific delivery to mucosal tissues. All of these properties, in addition to the nonimmunogenicity of alginate, have led to an increased use of this polymer as a protein delivery system. This review will discuss the chemistry of alginate, its gelation mechanisms, and the physical properties of alginate gels. Emphasis will be placed on applications in which biomolecules have been incorporated into and released from alginate systems.
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              Nanoparticles as potential oral delivery systems of proteins and vaccines: a mechanistic approach.

              Peptides and proteins remain poorly bioavailable upon oral administration. One of the most promising strategies to improve their oral delivery relies on their association with colloidal carriers, e.g. polymeric nanoparticles, stable in gastrointestinal tract, protective for encapsulated substances and able to modulate physicochemical characteristics, drug release and biological behavior. The mechanisms of transport of these nanoparticles across intestinal mucosa are reviewed. In particular, the influence of size and surface properties on their non-specific uptake or their targeted uptake by enterocytes and/or M cells is discussed. Enhancement of their uptake by appropriate cells, i.e. M cells by (i) modeling surface properties to optimize access to and transport by M cells (ii) identifying surface markers specific to human M cell allowing targeting to M cells and nanoparticles transcytosis is illustrated. Encouraging results upon in vivo testing are reported but low bioavailability and lack of control on absorbed dose slow down products development. Vaccines are certainly the most promising applications for orally delivered nanoparticles.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2016
                28 January 2016
                : 10
                : 483-507
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tarek A Ahmed, Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, PO Box 80200, Jeddah 21589, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Tel +966 5 9982 8003, Email dr_tarek_nour@ 123456yahoo.com
                Article
                dddt-10-483
                10.2147/DDDT.S99651
                4734734
                26869768
                © 2016 Ahmed and Aljaeid. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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