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      Phenylacetic Acid and Arterial Vascular Properties in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease Stage 5 on Hemodialysis Therapy

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          Abstract

          Background: Phenylacetic acid (PAA) is a recently described uremic toxin that inhibits inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and plasma membrane calcium ATPase and may therefore also be involved in remodeling of arteries. Such vascular effects have not been evaluated yet in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5. Method: We prospectively measured the plasma concentrations of PAA using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in 50 patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5 (37 men, 13 women) on maintenance hemodialysis. Arterial vascular properties were quantified by the reflective index obtained from digital photoplethysmography. Results: During the hemodialysis session the plasma PAA concentration was reduced from 3.38 ± 0.24 mmol/l (mean ± SEM; median, 2.85 mmol/l; interquartile range, 2.02–4.52 mmol/l) to 2.25 ± 0.11 mmol/l (median, 2.06 mmol/l; interquartile range, 1.62–2.86 mmol/l; n = 50; p < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between the PAA concentration and the reflective index before the start of the hemodialysis session. Conclusion: The study demonstrates an association of PAA and arterial vascular properties in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 5.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction.

          The presence of coexisting conditions has a substantial effect on the outcome of acute myocardial infarction. Renal failure is associated with one of the highest risks, but the influence of milder degrees of renal impairment is less well defined. As part of the Valsartan in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (VALIANT), we identified 14,527 patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by clinical or radiologic signs of heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, or both, and a documented serum creatinine measurement. Patients were randomly assigned to receive captopril, valsartan, or both. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by means of the four-component Modification of Diet in Renal Disease equation, and the patients were grouped according to their estimated GFR. We used a 70-candidate variable model to adjust and compare overall mortality and composite cardiovascular events among four GFR groups. The distribution of estimated GFR was wide and normally shaped, with a mean (+/-SD) value of 70+/-21 ml per minute per 1.73 m2 of body-surface area. The prevalence of coexisting risk factors, prior cardiovascular disease, and a Killip class of more than I was greatest among patients with a reduced estimated GFR (less than 45.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2), and the use of aspirin, beta-blockers, statins, or coronary-revascularization procedures was lowest in this group. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, congestive heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest increased with declining estimated GFRs. Although the rate of renal events increased with declining estimated GFRs, the adverse outcomes were predominantly cardiovascular. Below 81.0 ml per minute per 1.73 m2, each reduction of the estimated GFR by 10 units was associated with a hazard ratio for death and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes of 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.08 to 1.12), which was independent of the treatment assignment. Even mild renal disease, as assessed by the estimated GFR, should be considered a major risk factor for cardiovascular complications after a myocardial infarction. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Chronic kidney disease as cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

             Z Massy,  Àngel Argilés,   (2005)
            To make an evidence-based evaluation of the relationship between kidney failure and cardiovascular risk, we reviewed the literature obtained from a PubMed search using pre-defined keywords related to both conditions and covering 18 years (1986 until end 2003). Eighty-five publications, covering 552 258 subjects, are summarized. All but three studies support a link between kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular risk. More importantly, the association is observed very early during the evolution of renal failure: an accelerated cardiovascular risk appears at varying glomerular filtration rate (GFR) cut-off values, which were >/=60 ml/min in at least 20 studies. Many studies lacked a clear definition of cardiovascular disease and/or used a single determination of serum creatinine or GFR as an index of kidney function, which is not necessarily corresponding to well-defined chronic kidney disease. In six studies, however, chronic kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular disease were well defined and the results of these confirm the impact of kidney dysfunction. It is concluded that there is an undeniable link between kidney dysfunction and cardiovascular risk and that the presence of even subtle kidney dysfunction should be considered as one of the conditions necessitating intensive prevention of this cardiovascular risk.
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              Abdominal aortic calcific deposits are an important predictor of vascular morbidity and mortality.

              The impact of abdominal arterial calcific deposits on the prediction of cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a long follow-up interval deserves greater scrutiny. Lateral lumbar radiographs were studied as a predictor of incident coronary heart disease (CHD), CVD, and CVD mortality in 1049 men and 1466 women (mean age, 61 years) who were followed from 1967 to 1989. Anterior and posterior wall calcific deposits in the aorta at the level of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae were graded according to increasing severity using a previously validated rating scale for abdominal aortic calcium (AAC) that ranges from 0 to 24 points. There were 454 cases of CHD, 709 cases of CVD, and 365 CVD deaths. Proportional hazards logistic regression was used to test for associations between AAC and later events after adjustment for age, cigarette use, diabetes mellitus, systolic blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, body mass index, cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. In comparisons with the lowest AAC tertile, the multivariate age-adjusted relative risks (RR) for CVD were increased in tertile 2 (men: RR, 1.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02 to 1.74; women: RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.65) and tertile 3 (men: RR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.25 to 2.27; women: RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.33 to 2.38). Similar results were obtained with CHD and CVD mortality. AAC deposits, detected by lateral lumbar radiograms, are a marker of subclinical atherosclerotic disease and an independent predictor of subsequent vascular morbidity and mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                September 2007
                05 July 2007
                : 107
                : 1
                : c1-c6
                Affiliations
                Medizinische Klinik IV, Nephrologie, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin, Deutschland
                Article
                105137 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;107:c1–c6
                10.1159/000105137
                17622769
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 30, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

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