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      Effect of Point-of-Care Diagnostics on Maternal Outcomes in Human Immunodeficiency Virus–Infected Women : Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

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          Diagnostic point-of-care tests in resource-limited settings.

          The aim of diagnostic point-of-care testing is to minimise the time to obtain a test result, thereby allowing clinicians and patients to make a quick clinical decision. Because point-of-care tests are used in resource-limited settings, the benefits need to outweigh the costs. To optimise point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings, diagnostic tests need rigorous assessments focused on relevant clinical outcomes and operational costs, which differ from assessments of conventional diagnostic tests. We reviewed published studies on point-of-care testing in resource-limited settings, and found no clearly defined metric for the clinical usefulness of point-of-care testing. Therefore, we propose a framework for the assessment of point-of-care tests, and suggest and define the term test efficacy to describe the ability of a diagnostic test to support a clinical decision within its operational context. We also propose revised criteria for an ideal diagnostic point-of-care test in resource-limited settings. Through systematic assessments, comparisons between centralised testing and novel point-of-care technologies can be more formalised, and health officials can better establish which point-of-care technologies represent valuable additions to their clinical programmes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Effect of point-of-care CD4 cell count tests on retention of patients and rates of antiretroviral therapy initiation in primary health clinics: an observational cohort study.

            Loss to follow-up of HIV-positive patients before initiation of antiretroviral therapy can exceed 50% in low-income settings and is a challenge to the scale-up of treatment. We implemented point-of-care counting of CD4 cells in Mozambique and assessed the effect on loss to follow-up before immunological staging and treatment initiation. In this observational cohort study, data for enrolment into HIV management and initiation of antiretroviral therapy were extracted retrospectively from patients' records at four primary health clinics providing HIV treatment and point-of-care CD4 services. Loss to follow-up and the duration of each preparatory step before treatment initiation were measured and compared with baseline data from before the introduction of point-of-care CD4 testing. After the introduction of point-of-care CD4 the proportion of patients lost to follow-up before completion of CD4 staging dropped from 57% (278 of 492) to 21% (92 of 437) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0·2, 95% CI 0·15-0·27). Total loss to follow-up before initiation of antiretroviral treatment fell from 64% (314 of 492) to 33% (142 of 437) (OR 0·27, 95% CI 0·21-0·36) and the proportion of enrolled patients initiating antiretroviral therapy increased from 12% (57 of 492) to 22% (94 of 437) (OR 2·05, 95% CI 1·42-2·96). The median time from enrolment to antiretroviral therapy initiation reduced from 48 days to 20 days (p<0·0001), primarily because of a reduction in the median time taken to complete CD4 staging, which decreased from 32 days to 3 days (p<0·0001). Loss to follow-up between staging and antiretroviral therapy initiation did not change significantly (OR 0·84, 95% CI 0·49-1·45). Point-of-care CD4 testing enabled clinics to stage patients rapidly on-site after enrolment, which reduced opportunities for pretreatment loss to follow-up. As a result, more patients were identified as eligible for and initiated antiretroviral treatment. Point-of-care testing might therefore be an effective intervention to reduce pretreatment loss to follow-up. Absolute Return for Kids and UNITAID. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Low male partner participation in antenatal HIV counselling and testing in northern Tanzania: implications for preventive programs.

              This study aimed to describe the prevalence and predictors for male partner participation in HIV voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) at two primary healthcare clinics in Moshi urban, Tanzania as well as the effect of partner participation on uptake of HIV perinatal interventions. Pregnant women (n = 2654) in their third trimester, participating in a prevention of mother to child tranmission (PMTCT) program between June 2002 and March 2004 were encouraged to inform and invite their partners for HIV-VCT. Trained nurses conducted pre-test counselling, interviews, clinical examinations and blood sampling from the participating women and their partners. Test results were presented and post-test counselling was conducted individually or in couples, depending on the wishes of the participants. Three-hundred-and-thirty-two male partners (12.5%) came for HIV-VCT. A high proportion (131; 40%) came after the woman had delivered. HIV-seropositive women whose partners attended were three times more likely to use Nevirapine prophylaxis, four times more likely to avoid breastfeeding and six times more likely to adhere to the infant feeding method selected than those whose partners didn't attend. Women were more likely to bring their partner for VCT if they collected their own test results, were living with their partner, had a high monthly income and had expressed at enrolment the intention to share HIV results with their partner. Although PMTCT programs are presumably a good entry point for male involvement in prevention of sexual and perinatal HIV transmission, this traditional clinic-based approach reaches few men. Given the positive influence male participation has on the acceptance of perinatal interventions, a different approach for promoting male participation in VCT is urgently required. Within PMTCT programs, counseling should emphasize the advantages of partner participation to encourage women to inform and convince male partners to come for VCT. Also, promotion of couple VCT outside antenatal settings in male friendly and accessible settings should be given priority.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Point of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing & Technology
                Point of Care: The Journal of Near-Patient Testing & Technology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                1533-029X
                2017
                June 2017
                : 16
                : 2
                : 67-77
                Article
                10.1097/POC.0000000000000135
                © 2017

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