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      Current knowledge about the risks and benefits of raw meat-based diets for dogs and cats.

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          The genomic signature of dog domestication reveals adaptation to a starch-rich diet.

          The domestication of dogs was an important episode in the development of human civilization. The precise timing and location of this event is debated and little is known about the genetic changes that accompanied the transformation of ancient wolves into domestic dogs. Here we conduct whole-genome resequencing of dogs and wolves to identify 3.8 million genetic variants used to identify 36 genomic regions that probably represent targets for selection during dog domestication. Nineteen of these regions contain genes important in brain function, eight of which belong to nervous system development pathways and potentially underlie behavioural changes central to dog domestication. Ten genes with key roles in starch digestion and fat metabolism also show signals of selection. We identify candidate mutations in key genes and provide functional support for an increased starch digestion in dogs relative to wolves. Our results indicate that novel adaptations allowing the early ancestors of modern dogs to thrive on a diet rich in starch, relative to the carnivorous diet of wolves, constituted a crucial step in the early domestication of dogs.
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            Meat consumption and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

            Accumulating epidemiologic evidence indicates that high consumption of red meat and of processed meat may increase the risk of colorectal cancer. We quantitatively assessed the association between red meat and processed meat consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer in a meta-analysis of prospective studies published through March 2006. Random-effects models were used to pool study results and to assess dose-response relationships. We identified 15 prospective studies on red meat (involving 7,367 cases) and 14 prospective studies on processed meat consumption (7,903 cases). The summary relative risks (RRs) of colorectal cancer for the highest vs. the lowest intake categories were 1.28 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15-1.42) for red meat and 1.20 (95% CI = 1.11-1.31) for processed meat. The estimated summary RRs were 1.28 (95% CI = 1.18-1.39) for an increase of 120 g/day of red meat and 1.09 (95% CI = 1.05-1.13) for an increase of 30 g/day of processed meat. Consumption of red meat and processed meat was positively associated with risk of both colon and rectal cancer, although the association with red meat appeared to be stronger for rectal cancer. In 3 studies that reported results for subsites in the colon, high consumption of processed meat was associated with an increased risk of distal colon cancer but not of proximal colon cancer. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective studies support the hypothesis that high consumption of red meat and of processed meat is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer.
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              Food Browning and Its Prevention:  An Overview†

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
                Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
                American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA)
                1943-569X
                0003-1488
                Dec 01 2013
                : 243
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Clinical Sciences, Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine, Tufts University, North Grafton, MA 01536.
                Article
                10.2460/javma.243.11.1549
                24261804
                4d8dfaee-01d1-4b90-aeff-3ff3f8856f45

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