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      Association between Mild Renal Dysfunction and Insulin Resistance or Metabolic Syndrome in a Random Nondiabetic Population Sample

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          Abstract

          Aims: The association of mild renal dysfunction (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 60–89.9 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup>) with insulin resistance (IR) or metabolic syndrome (MS) needs be investigated in a population in which MS prevails. Methods: After excluding subjects with diabetes mellitus, 1,678 subjects from a representative cohort (median age 52 years) were studied cross-sectionally. eGFR was based on serum creatinine concentrations using the quadratic GFR equation and categorized by 90 and 60 ml/min/1.73 m<sup>2</sup> as limits. MS was identified using the modified criteria of the Adult Treatment Panel-III. Results: In men, whereas MS was not significantly associated with a reduced eGFR category when controlled for homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), HOMA adjusted for MS or for its components was significantly associated with the likelihood of a reduced eGFR. This likelihood was increased by 14% with a doubling of HOMA in men. Age was the dominant correlate of reduced eGFR in women, whereby an association with HOMA was not significant. Conclusion: Mildly impaired kidney function is common in nondiabetic adults among whom MS prevails, and in men it is mainly associated with IR but not with central obesity and MS-related dyslipidemia. The quadratic GFR equation enables an acceptable estimation of GFR in a general population.

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          Most cited references 15

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          Chronic kidney disease as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality: a pooled analysis of community-based studies.

          Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major public health problem. Conflicting evidence exists among community-based studies as to whether CKD is an independent risk factor for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. After subjects with a baseline history of cardiovascular disease were excluded, data from four publicly available, community-based longitudinal studies were pooled: Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, Cardiovascular Health Study, Framingham Heart Study, and Framingham Offspring Study. Serum creatinine levels were indirectly calibrated across studies. CKD was defined by a GFR between 15 and 60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2). A composite of myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, stroke, and death was the primary study outcome. Cox proportional hazards models were used to adjust for study, demographic variables, educational status, and other cardiovascular risk factors. The total population included 22,634 subjects; 18.4% of the population was black, and 7.4% had CKD. There were 3262 events. In adjusted analyses, CKD was an independent risk factor for the composite study outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.19; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.32), and there was a significant interaction between kidney function and race. Black individuals with CKD had an adjusted HR of 1.76 (95% CI, 1.35-2.31), whereas whites had an adjusted HR of 1.13 (95% CI, 1.02-1.26). CKD is a risk factor for the composite outcome of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease in the general population and a more pronounced risk factor in blacks than in whites. It is hypothesized that this effect may be due to more frequent or more severe subclinical vascular disease secondary to hypertension or diabetes in black individuals.
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            Plasma lipids and risk of developing renal dysfunction: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study.

            Animal and in vitro data suggest that dyslipidemia plays an important role in the initiation and progression of chronic renal disease, but few prospective studies have been conducted in humans. We studied the relationship of plasma lipids to a rise in serum creatinine of 0.4 mg/dL or greater in 12,728 Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) participants with baseline serum creatinine that was less than 2.0 mg/dL in men and less than 1.8 mg/dL in women. During a mean follow-up of 2.9 years, 191 persons had a rise in creatinine of 0.4 mg/dL or greater, yielding an incidence rate of 5.1 per 1000 person years. Individuals with higher triglycerides and lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL-2 cholesterol at baseline were at increased risk for a rise in creatinine after adjustment for race, gender, baseline age, diabetes, serum creatinine, systolic blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication use (all P trends
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              Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are already present in patients with incipient renal disease.

              In uremic patients resistance to the action of insulin has been documented, but it is not known at what stage of renal disease it appears. We therefore examined 29 patients with IgA glomerulonephritis (IgAGN) and 21 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) in different stages of renal failure, and in addition, healthy age-matched subjects. Insulin sensitivity and other variables of glucose metabolism were assessed using a frequent sampling intravenous glucose tolerance test (minimal-model technique). Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed in renal patients using the inulin-clearance technique. Mean insulin sensitivity index (SI), that is, insulin sensitivity, was significantly lower (P < 0.001) in all patients combined than in matched healthy subjects (N = 16; 14 males, mean age 42 +/- 3 years; mean SI 8.6 +/- 0.8 min-1 uU/ml). The mean SI was not significantly different in patients with renal disease of immune (IgAGN) or non-immune (ADPKD) origin, and it was not correlated with GFR (r = 0.01, P < 0.52), intact PTH (r = -0.23, P < 0.11) or calcitriol concentration (r = -0.03, P < 0.82). Consequently, the mean SI was similar in renal patients with GFR within the normal range (N = 19; 17 males, mean age 41 +/- 2 years; mean GFR 119 +/- 5 ml/min/1.73 m2; 5.1 +/- 0.7 min-1 uU/ml), in patients with mild to moderate renal failure (N = 16; 15 males, 46 +/- 3 years; 67 +/- 4 ml/min/1.73 m2; 5.1 +/- 0.7 min-1 microU/ml) and in patients with advanced renal failure (N = 15; 13 males, 46 +/- 3 years; 25 +/- 2 ml/min/1.73 m2; 4.7 +/- 0.6 min-1 uU/ml). Mean fasted plasma insulin concentration, the area under the curve for plasma insulin concentration (AUC) and total insulin delivery (TID) during the glucose tolerance test were significantly higher in patients than in healthy subjects, reflecting hyperinsulinemia in renal patients. Further, fasted plasma insulin concentration (r = -0.32, P < 0.009), AUC (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) and TID (r = -0.34, P < 0.004) in patients were significantly correlated with insulin sensitivity (SI). The present data document that insulin resistance and concomitant hyperinsulinemia are present early in the course of renal disease, that is, even in patients with GFR within the normal range, irrespective of the type of renal disease. This observation may have potential implications with respect to the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with renal disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2007
                April 2007
                07 March 2007
                : 30
                : 2
                : 88-96
                Affiliations
                aTurkish Society of Cardiology, bCerrahpaşa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, cBiology Department, Yildiz Technical University, dS. Ersek Cardiovascular Surgery Center, eKosuyolu Heart Hospital, Istanbul, and fCardiology Department of I. Baysal U. Düzce Medical Faculty, Düzce, Turkey
                Article
                100487 Kidney Blood Press Res 2007;30:88–96
                10.1159/000100487
                17347575
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 6, References: 29, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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