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      Tilapia Lake Virus was not detected in non‐tilapine species within tilapia polyculture systems of Bangladesh


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          Sixteen countries, including Bangladesh, have reported the presence of tilapia lake virus (TiLV), an emerging tilapia pathogen. Fish polyculture is a common farming practice in Bangladesh. Some unusual mortalities reported in species co‐cultivated with TiLV‐infected tilapia led us to investigate whether any of the co‐cultivated species would also test positive for TiLV and whether they were susceptible to TiLV infection under controlled laboratory experiments. Using 183 samples obtained from 15 farms in six districts across Bangladesh, we determined that 20% of the farms tested positive for TiLV in tilapia, while 15 co‐cultivated fish species and seven other invertebrates (e.g. insects and crustaceans) considered potential carriers all tested negative. Of the six representative fish species experimentally infected with TiLV, only Nile tilapia showed the typical clinical signs of the disease, with 70% mortality within 12 days. By contrast, four carp species and one catfish species challenged with TiLV showed no signs of TiLV infection. Challenged tilapia were confirmed as TiLV‐positive by RT‐qPCR, while challenged carp and walking catfish all tested negative. Overall, our field and laboratory findings indicate that species used in polycultures are not susceptible to TiLV. Although current evidence suggests that TiLV is likely host‐specific to tilapia, targeted surveillance for TiLV in other fish species in polyculture systems should continue, in order to prepare for a possible future scenario where TiLV mutates and/or adapts to new host(s).

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          Identification of a novel RNA virus lethal to tilapia.

          Tilapines are important for the sustainability of ecological systems and serve as the second most important group of farmed fish worldwide. Significant mortality of wild and cultured tilapia has been observed recently in Israel. The etiological agent of this disease, a novel RNA virus, is described here, and procedures allowing its isolation and detection are revealed. The virus, denominated tilapia lake virus (TiLV), was propagated in primary tilapia brain cells or in an E-11 cell line, and it induced a cytopathic effect at 5 to 10 days postinfection. Electron microscopy revealed enveloped icosahedral particles of 55 to 75 nm. Low-passage TiLV, injected intraperitoneally in tilapia, induced a disease resembling the natural disease, which typically presents with lethargy, ocular alterations, and skin erosions, with >80% mortality. Histological changes included congestion of the internal organs (kidneys and brain) with foci of gliosis and perivascular cuffing of lymphocytes in the brain cortex; ocular inflammation included endophthalmitis and cataractous changes of the lens. The cohabitation of healthy and diseased fish demonstrated that the disease is contagious and that mortalities (80 to 100%) occur within a few days. Fish surviving the initial mortality were immune to further TiLV infections, suggesting the mounting of a protective immune response. Screening cDNA libraries identified a TiLV-specific sequence, allowing the design of a PCR-based diagnostic test. This test enables the specific identification of TiLV in tilapines and should help control the spread of this virus worldwide.
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            Broad host range of SARS-CoV-2 and the molecular basis for SARS-CoV-2 binding to cat ACE2

            Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the recent pandemic COVID-19, is reported to have originated from bats, with its intermediate host unknown to date. Here, we screened 26 animal counterparts of the human ACE2 (hACE2), the receptor for SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, and found that the ACE2s from various species, including pets, domestic animals and multiple wild animals, could bind to SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain (RBD) and facilitate the transduction of SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. Comparing to SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV seems to have a slightly wider range in choosing its receptor. We further resolved the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the cat ACE2 (cACE2) in complex with the SARS-CoV-2 RBD at a resolution of 3 Å, revealing similar binding mode as hACE2 to the SARS-CoV-2 RBD. These results shed light on pursuing the intermediate host of SARS-CoV-2 and highlight the necessity of monitoring susceptible hosts to prevent further outbreaks.
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              Characterization of a Novel Orthomyxo-like Virus Causing Mass Die-Offs of Tilapia

              ABSTRACT Tilapia are an important global food source due to their omnivorous diet, tolerance for high-density aquaculture, and relative disease resistance. Since 2009, tilapia aquaculture has been threatened by mass die-offs in farmed fish in Israel and Ecuador. Here we report evidence implicating a novel orthomyxo-like virus in these outbreaks. The tilapia lake virus (TiLV) has a 10-segment, negative-sense RNA genome. The largest segment, segment 1, contains an open reading frame with weak sequence homology to the influenza C virus PB1 subunit. The other nine segments showed no homology to other viruses but have conserved, complementary sequences at their 5′ and 3′ termini, consistent with the genome organization found in other orthomyxoviruses. In situ hybridization indicates TiLV replication and transcription at sites of pathology in the liver and central nervous system of tilapia with disease.

                Author and article information

                J Fish Dis
                J Fish Dis
                Journal of Fish Diseases
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                27 September 2021
                January 2022
                : 45
                : 1 ( doiID: 10.1111/jfd.v45.1 )
                : 77-87
                [ 1 ] The International Graduate Course of Veterinary Science and Technology (VST) Faculty of Veterinary Science Chulalongkorn University Bangkok Thailand
                [ 2 ] Department of Veterinary Microbiology Center of Excellent in Fish Infectious Diseases (CE FID) Faculty of Veterinary Science Chulalongkorn University Bangkok Thailand
                [ 3 ] Fish Health Platform Center of Excellence for Shrimp Molecular Biology and Biotechnology (Centex Shrimp) Faculty of Science Mahidol University Bangkok Thailand
                [ 4 ] National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (BIOTEC) National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA) Pathum Thani Thailand
                [ 5 ] Research Institute for Aquaculture No Bac Ninh Vietnam
                [ 6 ] WorldFish Penang Malaysia
                [ 7 ] Department of Food, Agriculture and Bioresources Aquaculture and Aquatic Resources Management Program Asian Institute of Technology (AIT) School of Environment Klong Luang Pathumthani Thailand
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Partho Pratim Debnath, Channarong Rodkhum The International Graduate Course of Veterinary Science and Technology (VST), Faculty of Veterinary Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand.

                Emails: parthoku2004@ 123456yahoo.com ; Channarong.R@ 123456Chula.ac.th

                © 2021 The Authors. Journal of Fish Diseases published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, Pages: 0, Words: 8052
                Funded by: CGIAR Research Program on Fish Agri‐Food Systems
                Funded by: Future Bangladesh Aquaculture and Nutrition Activity
                Funded by: United States Agency for International Development , doi 10.13039/100000200;
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                January 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.7 mode:remove_FC converted:18.07.2022

                bangladesh,carp species,nile tilapia,polyculture,susceptibility,tilv,walking catfish


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