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      Surface Characteristics and Color Stability of Gingiva-Colored Resin Composites


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          The purpose of this study was to investigate the surface characteristics and color stability of gingiva-colored composite restorative materials (Anaxgum—ANG, Ceramage—CMG and Gradia Gum—GRG). The microstructure, composition, degree of conversion (DC %) and 3D roughness (Sa, Sz, Sdr, Sc) were examined by LV-SEM/EDS, ATR-FTIR and optical profilometry, respectively. For the color stability (CIE L*, a*, b* system) and hardness (HV), measurements were performed at baseline and after 30 days storage in distilled water, coffee and red wine. The ANG and GRG contain prepolymerized particles in aromatic and aliphatic resin matrices, respectively, whereas CMG contains inorganic zirconia silicate/silica particles, in an aromatic resin matrix, with a smaller particle size and a higher surface area fraction. Urethane monomers were mainly identified in CMG and GRG. The DC% showed statistically insignificant differences between the materials. The same applied for the roughness parameters, except for the greatest Sdr in CMG. ANG showed a color difference (ΔE) of > 3.3 after immersion in all media, CMG in coffee and wine and GRG only in coffee. Sc was the only roughness parameter demonstrating correlations with the ΔL*, Δb* and ΔE*. The HV values showed insignificant differences between the storage conditions per material. There are important differences in the color stability of the materials tested, which were mostly affected by the roughness parameters due to variations in their microstructure.

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          Study of water sorption, solubility and modulus of elasticity of light-cured dimethacrylate-based dental resins.

          Polydimethacrylate resins were prepared by photopolymerization of Bis-GMA, TEGDMA, UDMA or Bis-EMA (4) monomer, initiated by camphoroquinone/N,N-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate system. The study of physical properties of these resins showed that TEGDMA seems to create the most dense polymer network, which however is the most flexible (0.74GPa), absorbs the highest amount of water (6.33 wt%) and releases the lowest amount of unreacted monomer (2.41 microg/mm(3)). UDMA and Bis-EMA (4) create more rigid networks, which absorb lower water and release higher unreacted monomer than TEGDMA. Bis-EMA (4) absorbs the lowest water amount (1.79 wt%) and releases the highest amount of unreacted monomer (14.21 microg/mm(3)). Bis-GMA leads to the formation of the most rigid network (1.43 GPa), which absorbs lower water than the resin made by TEGDMA but higher than the resin made by UDMA and Bis-EMA (4). Copolymers of Bis-GMA with the other monomers were also prepared, using various monomer combinations and molar ratios. Copolymers Bis-GMA/TEGDMA (50/50 and 70/30 wt%) showed significantly higher values for Young's modulus (1.83 and 1.78 GPa) than those predicted by the linear dependence of the values on the copolymer composition. Gradual replacement of TEGDMA with UDMA or/and Bis-EMA (4) in copolymerization with Bis-GMA resulted in more flexible resins with lower water sorption and higher solubility values, depending on the TEGDMA content.
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            Surface deterioration of dental materials after simulated toothbrushing in relation to brushing time and load.

            (1) To evaluate the changes in surface roughness and gloss after simulated toothbrushing of 9 composite materials and 2 ceramic materials in relation to brushing time and load in vitro; (2) to assess the relationship between surface gloss and surface roughness.
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              Critical soft-tissue dimensions with dental implants and treatment concepts.

              Dental implants have proven to be a successful treatment option in fully and partially edentulous patients, rendering long-term functional and esthetic outcomes. Various factors are crucial for predictable long-term peri-implant tissue stability, including the biologic width; the papilla height and the mucosal soft-tissue level; the amounts of soft-tissue volume and keratinized tissue; and the biotype of the mucosa. The biotype of the mucosa is congenitally set, whereas many other parameters can, to some extent, be influenced by the treatment itself. Clinically, the choice of the dental implant and the position in a vertical and horizontal direction can substantially influence the establishment of the biologic width and subsequently the location of the buccal mucosa and the papilla height. Current treatment concepts predominantly focus on providing optimized peri-implant soft-tissue conditions before the start of the prosthetic phase and insertion of the final reconstruction. These include refined surgical techniques and the use of materials from autogenous and xenogenic origins to augment soft-tissue volume and keratinized tissue around dental implants, thereby mimicking the appearance of natural teeth.

                Author and article information

                Materials (Basel)
                Materials (Basel)
                03 June 2020
                June 2020
                : 13
                : 11
                : 2540
                [1 ]Department of Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece; aikatpetropoulou@ 123456gmail.com (A.P.); sarafia@ 123456otenet.gr (A.S.)
                [2 ]Department of Biomaterials, School of Dentistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, 11527 Athens, Greece; mar.dimitriadi82@ 123456gmail.com (M.D.); szinelis@ 123456dent.uoa.gr (S.Z.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: geliad@ 123456dent.uoa.gr
                Author information
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 20 April 2020
                : 01 June 2020

                gingiva-colored composites,composition,degree of conversion,roughness,hardness,color stability


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