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      Evolutionary flexibility in flooding response circuitry in angiosperms

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          Abstract

          Flooding due to extreme weather threatens crops and ecosystems. To understand variation in gene regulatory networks activated by submergence, we conducted a high-resolution analysis of chromatin accessibility and gene expression at three scales of transcript control in four angiosperms, ranging from a dryland-adapted wild species to a wetland crop. The data define a cohort of conserved submergence-activated genes with signatures of overlapping cis regulation by four transcription factor families. Syntenic genes are more highly expressed than nonsyntenic genes, yet both can have the cis motifs and chromatin accessibility associated with submergence up-regulation. Whereas the flexible circuitry spans the eudicot-monocot divide, the frequency of specific cis motifs, extent of chromatin accessibility, and degree of submergence activation are more prevalent in the wetland crop and may have adaptive importance.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Homeostatic response to hypoxia is regulated by the N-end rule pathway in plants

          Plants and animals are obligate aerobes, requiring oxygen for mitochondrial respiration and energy production. In plants, an unanticipated decline in oxygen availability (hypoxia), as caused by root waterlogging or foliage submergence, triggers changes in gene transcription and mRNA translation that promote anaerobic metabolism and thus sustain substrate-level ATP production 1 . In contrast to animals 2 , oxygen sensing has not been ascribed to a mechanism of gene regulation in response to oxygen deprivation in plants. Here we show that the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis acts as a homeostatic sensor of severe low oxygen in Arabidopsis, through its regulation of key hypoxia response transcription factors. We found that plants lacking components of the N-end rule pathway constitutively express core hypoxia response genes and are more tolerant of hypoxic stress. We identify the hypoxia-associated Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) Group VII transcription factors of Arabidopsis as substrates of this pathway. Regulation of these proteins by the N-end rule pathway occurs through a characteristic conserved motif at the N-terminus initiating with MetCys- (MC-). Enhanced stability of one of these proteins, HRE2, under low oxygen conditions improves hypoxia survival and reveals a molecular mechanism for oxygen sensing in plants via the evolutionarily conserved N-end rule pathway. SUB1A-1, a major determinant of submergence tolerance in rice 3 , was shown not to be a substrate for the N-end rule pathway despite containing the N-terminal motif, suggesting that it is uncoupled from N-end rule pathway regulation, and that enhanced stability may relate to the superior tolerance of Sub1 rice varieties to multiple abiotic stresses 4 .
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            How to usefully compare homologous plant genes and chromosomes as DNA sequences.

            There are four sequenced and publicly available plant genomes to date. With many more slated for completion, one challenge will be to use comparative genomic methods to detect novel evolutionary patterns in plant genomes. This research requires sequence alignment algorithms to detect regions of similarity within and among genomes. However, different alignment algorithms are optimized for identifying different types of homologous sequences. This review focuses on plant genome evolution and provides a tutorial for using several sequence alignment algorithms and visualization tools to detect useful patterns of conservation: conserved non-coding sequences, false positive noise, subfunctionalization, synteny, annotation errors, inversions and local duplications. Our tutorial encourages the reader to experiment online with the reviewed tools as a companion to the text.
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              Profiling translatomes of discrete cell populations resolves altered cellular priorities during hypoxia in Arabidopsis.

              Multicellular organs are composed of distinct cell types with unique assemblages of translated mRNAs. Here, ribosome-associated mRNAs were immunopurified from specific cell populations of intact seedlings using Arabidopsis thaliana lines expressing a FLAG-epitope tagged ribosomal protein L18 (FLAG-RPL18) via developmentally regulated promoters. The profiling of mRNAs in ribosome complexes, referred to as the translatome, identified differentially expressed mRNAs in 21 cell populations defined by cell-specific expression of FLAG-RPL18. Phloem companion cells of the root and shoot had the most distinctive translatomes. When seedlings were exposed to a brief period of hypoxia, a pronounced reprioritization of mRNA enrichment in the cell-specific translatomes occurred, including a ubiquitous rise in 49 mRNAs encoding transcription factors, signaling proteins, anaerobic metabolism enzymes, and uncharacterized proteins. Translatome profiling also exposed an intricate molecular signature of transcription factor (TF) family member mRNAs that was markedly reconfigured by hypoxia at global and cell-specific levels. In addition to the demonstration of the complexity and plasticity of cell-specific populations of ribosome-associated mRNAs, this study provides an in silico dataset for recognition of differentially expressed genes at the cell-, region-, and organ-specific levels.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Science
                Science
                American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS)
                0036-8075
                1095-9203
                September 19 2019
                September 20 2019
                September 19 2019
                September 20 2019
                : 365
                : 6459
                : 1291-1295
                Article
                10.1126/science.aax8862
                7710369
                31604238
                © 2019

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