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      GeSeq – versatile and accurate annotation of organelle genomes

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          Abstract

          We have developed the web application GeSeq ( https://chlorobox.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/geseq.html) for the rapid and accurate annotation of organellar genome sequences, in particular chloroplast genomes. In contrast to existing tools, GeSeq combines batch processing with a fully customizable reference sequence selection of organellar genome records from NCBI and/or references uploaded by the user. For the annotation of chloroplast genomes, the application additionally provides an integrated database of manually curated reference sequences. GeSeq identifies genes or other feature-encoding regions by BLAT-based homology searches and additionally, by profile HMM searches for protein and rRNA coding genes and two de novo predictors for tRNA genes. These unique features enable the user to conveniently compare the annotations of different state-of-the-art methods, thus supporting high-quality annotations. The main output of GeSeq is a GenBank file that usually requires only little curation and is instantly visualized by OGDRAW. GeSeq also offers a variety of optional additional outputs that facilitate downstream analyzes, for example comparative genomic or phylogenetic studies.

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          Most cited references 11

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          OrganellarGenomeDRAW—a suite of tools for generating physical maps of plastid and mitochondrial genomes and visualizing expression data sets

          Mitochondria and plastids (chloroplasts) are cell organelles of endosymbiotic origin that possess their own genetic information. Most organellar DNAs map as circular double-stranded genomes. Across the eukaryotic kingdom, organellar genomes display great size variation, ranging from ∼15 to 20 kb (the size of the mitochondrial genome in most animals) to >10 Mb (the size of the mitochondrial genome in some lineages of flowering plants). We have developed OrganellarGenomeDraw (OGDRAW), a suite of software tools that enable users to create high-quality visual representations of both circular and linear annotated genome sequences provided as GenBank files or accession numbers. Although all types of DNA sequences are accepted as input, the software has been specifically optimized to properly depict features of organellar genomes. A recent extension facilitates the plotting of quantitative gene expression data, such as transcript or protein abundance data, directly onto the genome map. OGDRAW has already become widely used and is available as a free web tool (http://ogdraw.mpimp-golm.mpg.de/). The core processing components can be downloaded as a Perl module, thus also allowing for convenient integration into custom processing pipelines.
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            TranslatorX: multiple alignment of nucleotide sequences guided by amino acid translations

            We present TranslatorX, a web server designed to align protein-coding nucleotide sequences based on their corresponding amino acid translations. Many comparisons between biological sequences (nucleic acids and proteins) involve the construction of multiple alignments. Alignments represent a statement regarding the homology between individual nucleotides or amino acids within homologous genes. As protein-coding DNA sequences evolve as triplets of nucleotides (codons) and it is known that sequence similarity degrades more rapidly at the DNA than at the amino acid level, alignments are generally more accurate when based on amino acids than on their corresponding nucleotides. TranslatorX novelties include: (i) use of all documented genetic codes and the possibility of assigning different genetic codes for each sequence; (ii) a battery of different multiple alignment programs; (iii) translation of ambiguous codons when possible; (iv) an innovative criterion to clean nucleotide alignments with GBlocks based on protein information; and (v) a rich output, including Jalview-powered graphical visualization of the alignments, codon-based alignments coloured according to the corresponding amino acids, measures of compositional bias and first, second and third codon position specific alignments. The TranslatorX server is freely available at http://translatorx.co.uk.
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              nhmmer: DNA homology search with profile HMMs

              Summary: Sequence database searches are an essential part of molecular biology, providing information about the function and evolutionary history of proteins, RNA molecules and DNA sequence elements. We present a tool for DNA/DNA sequence comparison that is built on the HMMER framework, which applies probabilistic inference methods based on hidden Markov models to the problem of homology search. This tool, called nhmmer, enables improved detection of remote DNA homologs, and has been used in combination with Dfam and RepeatMasker to improve annotation of transposable elements in the human genome. Availability: nhmmer is a part of the new HMMER3.1 release. Source code and documentation can be downloaded from http://hmmer.org. HMMER3.1 is freely licensed under the GNU GPLv3 and should be portable to any POSIX-compliant operating system, including Linux and Mac OS/X. Contact: wheelert@janelia.hhmi.org
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nucleic Acids Res
                Nucleic Acids Res
                nar
                Nucleic Acids Research
                Oxford University Press
                0305-1048
                1362-4962
                03 July 2017
                09 May 2017
                09 May 2017
                : 45
                : Web Server issue
                : W6-W11
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Max-Planck-Institut für Molekulare Pflanzenphysiologie, Am Mühlenberg 1, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm, Germany
                [2 ]Glogauer Straße 31, D-10999 Berlin, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +49 331 567 8349; Fax: +49 331 567 8701; Email: greiner@ 123456mpimp-golm.mpg.de
                Article
                gkx391
                10.1093/nar/gkx391
                5570176
                28486635
                © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@ 123456oup.com

                Page count
                Pages: 6
                Product
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                Web Server Issue

                Genetics

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