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      The Endothelin-1 Pathway and the Development of Cardiovascular Defects in the Haemodynamically Challenged Chicken Embryo


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          Background/Aims: Ligating the right lateral vitelline vein of chicken embryos (venous clip) results in cardiovascular malformations. These abnormalities are similar to malformations observed in knockout mice studies of components of the endothelin-1 (ET-1)/endothelin-converting enzyme-1/endothelin-A receptor pathway. In previous studies we demonstrated that cardiac ET-1 expression is decreased 3 h after clipping, and ventricular diastolic filling is disturbed after 2 days. Therefore, we hypothesise that ET-1-related processes are involved in the development of functional and morphological cardiovascular defects after venous clip. Methods: In this study, ET-1 and endothelin receptor antagonists (BQ-123, BQ-788 and PD145065) were infused into the HH18 embryonic circulation. Immediate haemodynamic effects on the embryonic heart and extra-embryonic vitelline veins were examined by Doppler and micro-particle image velocimetry. Ventricular diastolic filling characteristics were studied at HH24, followed by cardiovascular morphologic investigation (HH35). Results: ET-1 and its receptor antagonists induced haemodynamic effects at HH18. At HH24, a reduced diastolic ventricular passive filling component was demonstrated, which was compensated by an increased active filling component. Thinner ventricular myocardium was shown in 42% of experimental embryos. Conclusion: We conclude that cardiovascular malformations after venous clipping arise from a combination of haemodynamic changes and altered gene expression patterns and levels, including those of the endothelin pathway.

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          Most cited references 27

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          A series of normal stages in the development of the chick embryo

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            Prolonged fluid shear stress induces a distinct set of endothelial cell genes, most specifically lung Krüppel-like factor (KLF2).

            The endothelium expresses a large repertoire of genes under apparent transcriptional control of biomechanical forces, many of which are neither cell-type nor flow specific. We set out to identify genes that are uniquely flow responsive in human vascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional profiling using commercial DNA microarrays identified 12 of 18 000 genes that were modulated at least 5-fold after 24 hours of steady laminar flow (25 dyne/cm(2)). After a 7-day exposure to unidirectional pulsatile flow (19 +/- 12 dyne/cm(2)), only 3 of 12 remained elevated at least 5-fold. A custom microarray of ~300 vascular cell-related gene fragments was constructed, and expression analysis revealed that many flow-induced genes are also induced by at least one of the following agents: tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), transforming growth factor-beta, vascular endothelial growth factor, or thrombin, indicating a more general role in adaptive or stress responses. Most flow-induced genes were also induced by TNF-alpha but not IL-1beta, suggesting the involvement of reactive oxygen species. A limited panel of genes that are unique for flow-exposed cultures was identified, including lung Krüppel-like factor (LKLF/KLF2) and cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1). In marked contrast, both these genes were substantially repressed by TNF-alpha. LKLF but not CYP1B1 mRNA was detected exclusively in the vascular endothelium of healthy human aorta by in situ hybridization and appeared to be flow regulated. To date LKLF is the first endothelial transcription factor that is uniquely induced by flow and might therefore be at the molecular basis of the physiological healthy, flow-exposed state of the endothelial cell.
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              A PIV Algorithm for Estimating Time-Averaged Velocity Fields


                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                December 2007
                27 September 2007
                : 45
                : 1
                : 54-68
                aDepartment of Anatomy and Embryology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, bDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, cDepartment of Aero- and Hydrodynamics, Delft University of Technology, Delft, and dDepartment of Medical Biochemistry, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
                109077 J Vasc Res 2008;45:54–68
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 45, Pages: 15
                Research Paper


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