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      Hydrogen sulfide-induced post-translational modification as a potential drug target


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          Hydrogen sulfide (H 2S) is one of the three known gas signal transducers, and since its potential physiological role was reported, the literature on H 2S has been increasing. H 2S is involved in processes such as vasodilation, neurotransmission, angiogenesis, inflammation, and the prevention of ischemia-reperfusion injury, and its mechanism remains to be further studied. At present, the role of post-translational processing of proteins has been considered as a possible mechanism for the involvement of H 2S in a variety of physiological processes. Current studies have shown that H 2S is involved in S-sulfhydration, phosphorylation, and S-nitrosylation of proteins, etc. This paper focuses on the effects of protein modification involving H 2S on physiological and pathological processes, looking forward to providing guidance for subsequent research.

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          H2S as a physiologic vasorelaxant: hypertension in mice with deletion of cystathionine gamma-lyase.

          Studies of nitric oxide over the past two decades have highlighted the fundamental importance of gaseous signaling molecules in biology and medicine. The physiological role of other gases such as carbon monoxide and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is now receiving increasing attention. Here we show that H2S is physiologically generated by cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE) and that genetic deletion of this enzyme in mice markedly reduces H2S levels in the serum, heart, aorta, and other tissues. Mutant mice lacking CSE display pronounced hypertension and diminished endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. CSE is physiologically activated by calcium-calmodulin, which is a mechanism for H2S formation in response to vascular activation. These findings provide direct evidence that H2S is a physiologic vasodilator and regulator of blood pressure.
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            The vasorelaxant effect of H(2)S as a novel endogenous gaseous K(ATP) channel opener.

            Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has been traditionally viewed as a toxic gas. It is also, however, endogenously generated from cysteine metabolism. We attempted to assess the physiological role of H(2)S in the regulation of vascular contractility, the modulation of H(2)S production in vascular tissues, and the underlying mechanisms. Intravenous bolus injection of H(2)S transiently decreased blood pressure of rats by 12- 30 mmHg, which was antagonized by prior blockade of K(ATP) channels. H(2)S relaxed rat aortic tissues in vitro in a K(ATP) channel-dependent manner. In isolated vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs), H(2)S directly increased K(ATP) channel currents and hyperpolarized membrane. The expression of H(2)S-generating enzyme was identified in vascular SMCs, but not in endothelium. The endogenous production of H(2)S from different vascular tissues was also directly measured with the abundant level in the order of tail artery, aorta and mesenteric artery. Most importantly, H(2)S production from vascular tissues was enhanced by nitric oxide. Our results demonstrate that H(2)S is an important endogenous vasoactive factor and the first identified gaseous opener of K(ATP) channels in vascular SMCs.
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              H2S signals through protein S-sulfhydration.

              Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a messenger molecule generated by cystathionine gamma-lyase, acts as a physiologic vasorelaxant. Mechanisms whereby H2S signals have been elusive. We now show that H2S physiologically modifies cysteines in a large number of proteins by S-sulfhydration. About 10 to 25% of many liver proteins, including actin, tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), are sulfhydrated under physiological conditions. Sulfhydration augments GAPDH activity and enhances actin polymerization. Sulfhydration thus appears to be a physiologic posttranslational modification for proteins.

                Author and article information

                Genes Dis
                Genes Dis
                Genes & Diseases
                Chongqing Medical University
                20 April 2022
                September 2023
                20 April 2022
                : 10
                : 5
                : 1870-1882
                [a ]School of Basic Medical Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China
                [b ]Henan International Joint Laboratory for Nuclear Protein Regulation, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China
                [c ]Kaifeng Key Laboratory of Infection and Biological Safety, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China
                [d ]School of Stomatology, Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan 475004, China
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. ddwubiomed2010@ 123456163.com
                [∗∗ ]Corresponding author. 10190096@ 123456vip.henu.edu.cn
                © 2022 The Authors. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of KeAi Communications Co., Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 9 December 2021
                : 28 February 2022
                : 22 March 2022
                Review Article

                hydrogen sulfide,modification,phosphorylation,s-nitrosylation,s-sulfhydration


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