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      Mycogenic Selenium Nanoparticles as Potential New Generation Broad Spectrum Antifungal Molecules †

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          Abstract

          The current challenges of sustainable agricultural development augmented by global climate change have led to the exploration of new technologies like nanotechnology, which has potential in providing novel and improved solutions. Nanotools in the form of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides possess smart delivery mechanisms and controlled release capacity for active ingredients, thus minimizing excess run-off to water bodies. This study aimed to establish the broad spectrum antifungal activity of mycogenic selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) synthesized from Trichoderma atroviride, and characterize the bioactive nanoparticles using UV–Vis spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The synthesized nanoparticles displayed excellent in vitro antifungal activity against Pyricularia grisea and inhibited the infection of Colletotrichum capsici and Alternaria solani on chili and tomato leaves at concentrations of 50 and 100 ppm, respectively. The SEM-EDS analysis of the bioactive SeNPs revealed a spherical shape with sizes ranging from 60.48 nm to 123.16 nm. The nanoparticles also possessed the unique property of aggregating and binding to the zoospores of P. infestans at a concentration of 100 ppm, which was visualized using light microscope, atomic force microscopy, and electron microscopy. Thus, the present study highlights the practical application of SeNPs to manage plant diseases in an ecofriendly manner, due to their mycogenic synthesis and broad spectrum antifungal activity against different phytopathogens.

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          Most cited references36

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          Nanoparticulate material delivery to plants

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            Applications of nanomaterials in agricultural production and crop protection: A review

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              Nanotechnology: The new perspective in precision agriculture

              Highlights • Precision farming is measuring and responding to inter and intra-field variability in crops to form a decision support system. • About 40–70% of N, 80–90% of P and 50–70% of K of the applied fertilizers is lost to the environment causing pollution. • Nanofertilizers helps in slow and sustained release of agrochemicals resulting in precise dosage to the plants. • Green synthesized Ag, ZnO and TiO2 NPs are extensively used for plant protection and treatment of diseases. • Biosensors helps in detecting pesticides in the vegetable crops and form a decision support system for crop commodities.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                biomolecules
                Biomolecules
                MDPI
                2218-273X
                28 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 9
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory of Plant Healthcare and Diagnostics, PG Department of Studies in Biotechnology and Microbiology, Karnatak University, Pavate Nagar, Dharwad 580 003, Karnataka, India
                [2 ]Division of Biological Sciences, School of Science and Technology, The University of Goroka, Goroka 441, Papua New Guinea
                [3 ]Laboratory of Molecular Plant Pathology, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
                [4 ]Research Center for Thermotolerant Microbial Resources (RCTMR), Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8515, Japan
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: jsudish@ 123456kud.ac.in (S.J.); shinsan@ 123456yamaguchi-u.ac.jp (S.-i.I.); Tel.: +91-836-2779533 (S.J.); 81-083-933-5846 (S.-i.I.); Fax: +91-836-2747884 (S.J.); +81-083-933-5820 (S.-i.I.)
                [†]

                Running title: Trichoderma SeNPs exhibits broad spectrum antifungal properties.

                Article
                biomolecules-09-00419
                10.3390/biom9090419
                6769984
                31466286
                4dbd3c7b-f6ee-48ff-a3a1-6852d818b83d
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                trichoderma atroviride,selenium nanoparticles,broad spectrum,antifungal agents

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