Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a progressive damage of renal structure and function caused by various reasons. Its course is long and irreversible. CKD can be divided into 5 stages according to the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Early detection and early intervention of CKD can reduce the complications of patients and improve the survival rate. Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a small molecule transporter. Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand transmembrane signal transduction receptor discovered in recent years. Soluble RAGE (sRAGE) is a new splicing heterogeneity of RAGE. Our results show that serum RBP4 is increased while sRAGE is decreased in CKD patients, both of which are closely related to the severity of CKD. The combined use of serum RBP4 and sRAGE has a high diagnostic value for CKD and can provide a reliable diagnostic basis for the clinic.