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      Sero- and Feco-Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection and Its Associated Risk Factors among Adult Dyspeptic Patients Visiting the Outpatient Department of Adet Primary Hospital, Yilmana Densa District, Northwest Ethiopia

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          Abstract

          Background

          Most gastric cancers in the world are attributed to Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori) infections. The prevalence of H. pylori infection is influenced by socioeconomic status, hygiene, and lifestyle of the population. This study aimed to assess sero- and feco-prevalence of H. pylori infections and its associated risk factors among adult dyspeptic patients visiting the outpatient department of Adet Primary Hospital, Yilmana Densa District, northwest Ethiopia.

          Methods

          A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 10, 2022 to April 10, 2022. The study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. The data were collected by pretested questionnaires. Blood and stool specimens were collected from each patient for antibody and H. pylori antigen tests, respectively. The data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 26.0. A logistic regression model was used to assess the strength of association between H. pylori positivity and risk factors.

          Results

          The sero- and feco-prevalence of H. pylori infection was 62% and 51.1%, respectively. In those patients who had a positive result with either the antibody (Ab) or antigen (Ag) test, rural residence (AOR = 5.55; 95% CI: 2.34–13.14; p < 0.001), alcohol consumption (AOR = 12.34; 95% CI: 2.29–66.51; p=0.003), having no awareness about H. pylori transmission (AOR = 4.76; 95% CI: 1.86–12.15; p=0.001), using pond/river as a source of drinking water (AOR = 5.22; 95% CI: 1.91–14.27; p=0.001), and open field defecation (AOR = 4.19; 95% CI: 1.67–10.52; p=0.002) were the explanatory risk factors significantly associated with H. pylori infection.

          Conclusion

          This study showed that the prevalence of H. pylori infection was very high. Most cases of gastric cancers are ascribed to H. pylori infection. Therefore, education should be given to communities so as to increase their awareness of the infection and the associated major explanatory risk factors identified in the present study.

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          Most cited references68

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          Global Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

          The epidemiology of Helicobacter pylori infection has changed with improvements in sanitation and methods of eradication. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate changes in the global prevalence of H pylori infection.
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            Purposeful selection of variables in logistic regression

            Background The main problem in many model-building situations is to choose from a large set of covariates those that should be included in the "best" model. A decision to keep a variable in the model might be based on the clinical or statistical significance. There are several variable selection algorithms in existence. Those methods are mechanical and as such carry some limitations. Hosmer and Lemeshow describe a purposeful selection of covariates within which an analyst makes a variable selection decision at each step of the modeling process. Methods In this paper we introduce an algorithm which automates that process. We conduct a simulation study to compare the performance of this algorithm with three well documented variable selection procedures in SAS PROC LOGISTIC: FORWARD, BACKWARD, and STEPWISE. Results We show that the advantage of this approach is when the analyst is interested in risk factor modeling and not just prediction. In addition to significant covariates, this variable selection procedure has the capability of retaining important confounding variables, resulting potentially in a slightly richer model. Application of the macro is further illustrated with the Hosmer and Lemeshow Worchester Heart Attack Study (WHAS) data. Conclusion If an analyst is in need of an algorithm that will help guide the retention of significant covariates as well as confounding ones they should consider this macro as an alternative tool.
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              Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori infection.

              Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Disease outcome is the result of the complex interplay between the host and the bacterium. Host immune gene polymorphisms and gastric acid secretion largely determine the bacterium's ability to colonize a specific gastric niche. Bacterial virulence factors such as the cytotoxin-associated gene pathogenicity island-encoded protein CagA and the vacuolating cytotoxin VacA aid in this colonization of the gastric mucosa and subsequently seem to modulate the host's immune system. This review focuses on the microbiological, clinical, immunological, and biochemical aspects of the pathogenesis of H. pylori.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
                Can J Infect Dis Med Microbiol
                CJIDMM
                The Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases & Medical Microbiology = Journal Canadien des Maladies Infectieuses et de la Microbiologie Médicale
                Hindawi
                1712-9532
                1918-1493
                2023
                17 July 2023
                : 2023
                : 2305681
                Affiliations
                1Yilmana Densa Woreda Education Office, West Gojjam Zone, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                2Department of Biology, College of Science, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                3Institute of Biotechnology (IOB), Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                4Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                5North Mecha Woreda Education Office, West Gojjam Zone, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Muhammad Abu Bakr Shabbir

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7063-2877
                Article
                10.1155/2023/2305681
                10365919
                4dc17dab-95e7-4f2e-bf2b-dd130310f76b
                Copyright © 2023 Zebasil Mnichil et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 10 March 2023
                : 11 June 2023
                : 5 July 2023
                Categories
                Research Article

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