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      Alarming Levels of Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence among Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh: Emergency National and International Actions Warranted

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          How to cite this article: Mahtab MAL, Akbar SMF, et al. Alarming Levels of Hepatitis C Virus Prevalence among Rohingya Refugees in Bangladesh: Emergency National and International Actions Warranted. Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol 2019;9(1):55-56.

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          The Rohingya people of Myanmar: health, human rights, and identity.

          The Rohingya people of Myanmar (known as Burma before 1989) were stripped of citizenship in 1982, because they could not meet the requirement of proving their forefathers settled in Burma before 1823, and now account for one in seven of the global population of stateless people. Of the total 1·5 million Rohingya people living in Myanmar and across southeast Asia, only 82 000 have any legal protection obtained through UN-designated refugee status. Since 2012, more than 159 000 people, most of whom are Rohingya, have fled Myanmar in poorly constructed boats for journeys lasting several weeks to neighbouring nations, causing hundreds of deaths. We outline historical events preceding this complex emergency in health and human rights. The Rohingya people face a cycle of poor infant and child health, malnutrition, waterborne illness, and lack of obstetric care. In December, 2014, a UN resolution called for an end to the crisis. We discuss the Myanmar Government's ongoing treatment of Rohingya through the lens of international law, and the steps that the newly elected parliament must pursue for a durable solution.
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            Real-time analysis of the diphtheria outbreak in forcibly displaced Myanmar nationals in Bangladesh

            Background Between August and December 2017, more than 625,000 Rohingya from Myanmar fled into Bangladesh, settling in informal makeshift camps in Cox’s Bazar district and joining 212,000 Rohingya already present. In early November, a diphtheria outbreak hit the camps, with 440 reported cases during the first month. A rise in cases during early December led to a collaboration between teams from Médecins sans Frontières—who were running a provisional diphtheria treatment centre—and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine with the goal to use transmission dynamic models to forecast the potential scale of the outbreak and the resulting resource needs. Methods We first adjusted for delays between symptom onset and case presentation using the observed distribution of reporting delays from previously reported cases. We then fit a compartmental transmission model to the adjusted incidence stratified by age group and location. Model forecasts with a lead time of 2 weeks were issued on 12, 20, 26 and 30 December and communicated to decision-makers. Results The first forecast estimated that the outbreak would peak on 19 December in Balukhali camp with 303 (95% posterior predictive interval 122–599) cases and would continue to grow in Kutupalong camp, requiring a bed capacity of 316 (95% posterior predictive interval (PPI) 197–499). On 19 December, a total of 54 cases were reported, lower than forecasted. Subsequent forecasts were more accurate: on 20 December, we predicted a total of 912 cases (95% PPI 367–2183) and 136 (95% PPI 55–327) hospitalizations until the end of the year, with 616 cases actually reported during this period. Conclusions Real-time modelling enabled feedback of key information about the potential scale of the epidemic, resource needs and mechanisms of transmission to decision-makers at a time when this information was largely unknown. By 20 December, the model generated reliable forecasts and helped support decision-making on operational aspects of the outbreak response, such as hospital bed and staff needs, and with advocacy for control measures. Although modelling is only one component of the evidence base for decision-making in outbreak situations, suitable analysis and forecasting techniques can be used to gain insights into an ongoing outbreak. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (10.1186/s12916-019-1288-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              Massive diphtheria outbreak among Rohingya refugees: lessons learnt.

               MR, Rahman,  K. ISLAM (2021)

                Author and article information

                Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol
                Euroasian J Hepatogastroenterol
                Euroasian Journal of Hepato-Gastroenterology
                Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers
                Jan-Jun 2019
                : 9
                : 1
                : 55-56
                [1,6,8 ] Department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [2 ] Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Shitsukawa, Toon, Ehime, Japan, Miyakawa Memorial Research Foundation, Tokyo, Japan
                [3 ] Kazuaki Takahashi, Viral Hepatitis Research Foundation, Tokyo, Japan
                [4 ] Department of Hepatology, Cox's Bazar Medical College, Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh
                [5 ] Department of Hepatology, Shaheed Tajuddin Ahmod Medical College, Gazipur, Bangladesh
                [7 ] Department of Community Medicine, Ibrahim Medical College, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [9 ] Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, North South University, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [10 ] Forum for The Study of The Liver, Dhaka, Bangladesh
                [11,12 ] Communicable Disease Control, Directorate General of Health Services (DGHS), Dhaka, Bangladesh
                Author notes
                Mamun Al Mahtab, Department of Hepatology, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University, Dhaka, Bangladesh, Phone: 880 171 156 7275, e-mail: shwapnil@ 123456agni.com
                Copyright © 2019; Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishers (P) Ltd.

                © The Author(s). 2019 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and non-commercial reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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