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      Hirulog-1 Reduces Expression of Platelet-Derived Growth Factor in Neointima of Rat Carotid ArteryInduced by Balloon Catheter Injury

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          Abstract

          Vascular restenosis is one of the major concerns for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases using therapeutic vascular procedures. Hirulog-1, a synthetic thrombin inhibitor, effectively reduced ischemic events in coronary heart disease patients and caused less hemorrhagic complications compared to heparin. Thrombin stimulated the expression of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) in vascular cells. PDGF receptor blockers reduced angioplasty-induced restenosis in the swine model. The present study examined the effects of hirulog-1 on vascular stenosis, platelet deposition and the expression of PDGF in rat carotid arteries injured by balloon catheter. Multiple intravenous infusions of hirulog-1 (1 mg/kg/h for 4 h for 6 times), but not bolus injection or 1–2 times of infusion, reduced neointima/media ratio by 50% in balloon-injured carotid arteries compared to injured animals receiving saline alone. Activated partial thromboplastin time in hirulog-1-treated rats was significantly prolonged compared to saline controls but shorter than that in animals receiving heparin (50 U/kg/h). One of heparin-treated rat, but none of hirulog-1-treated, died from bleeding complication. Hirulog-1 injection transiently reduced platelet deposition on denuded intima visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Abundance of PDGF in neointima of injured carotid arteries detected by immunohistochemistry was significantly decreased following infusions of hirulog-1. The results suggest that balloon catheter injury induced neointima formation and the overexpression of PDGF in the neointima of rat carotid artery may be effectively suppressed by infusions with hirulog-1, a thrombin-specific inhibitor.

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          Most cited references 6

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          The biology of platelet-derived growth factor.

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            Treatment with bivalirudin (Hirulog) as compared with heparin during coronary angioplasty for unstable or postinfarction angina. Hirulog Angioplasty Study Investigators.

            Heparin is often administered during and after coronary angioplasty to prevent closure of the dilated vessel. However, ischemic or hemorrhagic complications occur in 5 to 10 percent of treated patients. We studied whether these complications could be prevented when the direct thrombin inhibitor bivalirudin (Hirulog) was used in place of heparin. We performed a double-blind, randomized trial in 4098 patients undergoing angioplasty for unstable or postinfarction angina. Patients were assigned to receive either heparin or bivalirudin immediately before angioplasty. The primary end point were death in the hospital, myocardial infarction, abrupt vessel closure, or rapid clinical deterioration of cardiac origin. In the total study group, bivalirudin did not significantly reduce the incidence of the primary end point (11.4 percent, vs. 12.2 percent for heparin) but did result in a lower incidence of bleeding (3.8 percent vs. 9.8 percent, P < 0.001). In the prospectively stratified subgroup of 704 patients with postinfarction angina, bivalirudin therapy resulted in a lower incidence of the primary end point (9.1 percent vs. 14.2 percent, P = 0.04) and a lower incidence of bleeding (3.0 percent vs. 11.1 percent, P < 0.001), but in a similar cumulative rate of death, myocardial infarction, and repeated revascularization in the six months after angioplasty (20.5 percent vs. 25.1 percent, P = 0.17). Bivalirudin was at least as effective as high-dose heparin in preventing ischemic complications in patients who underwent angioplasty for unstable angina, and it carried a lower risk of bleeding. Bivalirudin, as compared with heparin, reduced the risk of immediate ischemic complications in patients with postinfarction angina, but this difference was no longer apparent after six months.
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              A comparison of hirudin with heparin in the prevention of restenosis after coronary angioplasty. Helvetica Investigators.

              The likelihood of restenosis is a major limitation of coronary angioplasty. We studied whether hirudin, a highly selective inhibitor of thrombin with irreversible effects, would prevent restenosis after angioplasty. We compared two regimens of recombinant hirudin with heparin. We randomly assigned 1141 patients with unstable angina who were scheduled for angioplasty to receive one of three treatments: (1) a bolus dose of 10,000 IU of heparin followed by an intravenous infusion of heparin for 24 hours and subcutaneous placebo twice daily for three days (382 patients), (2) a bolus dose of 40 mg of hirudin followed by an intravenous infusion of hirudin for 24 hours and subcutaneous placebo twice daily for three days (381 patients), or (3) the same hirudin regimen except that 40 mg of hirudin was given subcutaneously instead of placebo twice daily for three days (378 patients). The primary end point was event-free survival at seven months. Other end points were early cardiac events (within 96 hours), bleeding and other complications of the study treatment, and angiographic measurements of coronary diameter at six months of follow-up. At seven months, event-free survival was 67.3 percent in the group receiving heparin, 63.5 percent in the group receiving intravenous hirudin, and 68.0 percent in the group receiving both intravenous and subcutaneous hirudin (P = 0.61). However, the administration of hirudin was associated with a significant reduction in early cardiac events, which occurred in 11.0, 7.9, and 5.6 percent of patients in the respective groups (combined relative risk with hirudin, 0.61; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.41 to 0.90; P = 0.023). The mean minimal luminal diameters in the respective groups on follow-up angiography at six months were 1.54, 1.47, and 1.56 mm (P = 0.08). Although significantly fewer early cardiac events occurred with hirudin than with heparin, hirudin had no apparent benefit with longer-term follow-up.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2000
                April 2000
                31 March 2000
                : 37
                : 2
                : 82-92
                Affiliations
                aDepartments of Internal Medicine and Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Man., Canada, and bDepartment of Health, State of New York, N.Y., USA
                Article
                25719 J Vasc Res 2000;37:82–92
                10.1159/000025719
                10754393
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 1, References: 48, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Paper

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