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      Endothelium-Dependent Hyperpolarization (EDH) in Hypertension: The Role of Endothelial Ion Channels

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          Abstract

          Upon stimulation with agonists and shear stress, the vascular endothelium of different vessels selectively releases several vasodilator factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin. In addition, vascular endothelial cells of many vessels regulate the contractility of the vascular smooth muscle cells through the generation of endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization (EDH). There is a general consensus that the opening of small- and intermediate-conductance Ca 2+-activated K + channels (SK Ca and IK Ca) is the initial mechanistic step for the generation of EDH. In animal models and humans, EDH and EDH-mediated relaxations are impaired during hypertension, and anti-hypertensive treatments restore such impairments. However, the underlying mechanisms of reduced EDH and its improvement by lowering blood pressure are poorly understood. Emerging evidence suggests that alterations of endothelial ion channels such as SK Ca channels, inward rectifier K + channels, Ca 2+-activated Cl channels, and transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels contribute to the impaired EDH during hypertension. In this review, we attempt to summarize the accumulating evidence regarding the pathophysiological role of endothelial ion channels, focusing on their relationship with EDH during hypertension.

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          Most cited references 164

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          TMEM16A confers receptor-activated calcium-dependent chloride conductance.

          Calcium (Ca(2+))-activated chloride channels are fundamental mediators in numerous physiological processes including transepithelial secretion, cardiac and neuronal excitation, sensory transduction, smooth muscle contraction and fertilization. Despite their physiological importance, their molecular identity has remained largely unknown. Here we show that transmembrane protein 16A (TMEM16A, which we also call anoctamin 1 (ANO1)) is a bona fide Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that is activated by intracellular Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-mobilizing stimuli. With eight putative transmembrane domains and no apparent similarity to previously characterized channels, ANO1 defines a new family of ionic channels. The biophysical properties as well as the pharmacological profile of ANO1 are in full agreement with native Ca(2+)-activated chloride currents. ANO1 is expressed in various secretory epithelia, the retina and sensory neurons. Furthermore, knockdown of mouse Ano1 markedly reduced native Ca(2+)-activated chloride currents as well as saliva production in mice. We conclude that ANO1 is a candidate Ca(2+)-activated chloride channel that mediates receptor-activated chloride currents in diverse physiological processes.
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            TMEM16A, a membrane protein associated with calcium-dependent chloride channel activity.

            Calcium-dependent chloride channels are required for normal electrolyte and fluid secretion, olfactory perception, and neuronal and smooth muscle excitability. The molecular identity of these membrane proteins is still unclear. Treatment of bronchial epithelial cells with interleukin-4 (IL-4) causes increased calcium-dependent chloride channel activity, presumably by regulating expression of the corresponding genes. We performed a global gene expression analysis to identify membrane proteins that are regulated by IL-4. Transfection of epithelial cells with specific small interfering RNA against each of these proteins shows that TMEM16A, a member of a family of putative plasma membrane proteins with unknown function, is associated with calcium-dependent chloride current, as measured with halide-sensitive fluorescent proteins, short-circuit current, and patch-clamp techniques. Our results indicate that TMEM16A is an intrinsic constituent of the calcium-dependent chloride channel. Identification of a previously unknown family of membrane proteins associated with chloride channel function will improve our understanding of chloride transport physiopathology and allow for the development of pharmacological tools useful for basic research and drug development.
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              Expression cloning of TMEM16A as a calcium-activated chloride channel subunit.

              Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs) are major regulators of sensory transduction, epithelial secretion, and smooth muscle contraction. Other crucial roles of CaCCs include action potential generation in Characean algae and prevention of polyspermia in frog egg membrane. None of the known molecular candidates share properties characteristic of most CaCCs in native cells. Using Axolotl oocytes as an expression system, we have identified TMEM16A as the Xenopus oocyte CaCC. The TMEM16 family of "transmembrane proteins with unknown function" is conserved among eukaryotes, with family members linked to tracheomalacia (mouse TMEM16A), gnathodiaphyseal dysplasia (human TMEM16E), aberrant X segregation (a Drosophila TMEM16 family member), and increased sodium tolerance (yeast TMEM16). Moreover, mouse TMEM16A and TMEM16B yield CaCCs in Axolotl oocytes and mammalian HEK293 cells and recapitulate the broad CaCC expression. The identification of this new family of ion channels may help the development of CaCC modulators for treating diseases including hypertension and cystic fibrosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                21 January 2018
                January 2018
                : 19
                : 1
                Affiliations
                Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan; tohtsubo@ 123456intmed2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp (T.O.); kitazono@ 123456intmed2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp (T.K.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: kengotou@ 123456intmed2.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp ; Tel.: +81-92-642-5256
                Article
                ijms-19-00315
                10.3390/ijms19010315
                5796258
                29361737
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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