We observed 18 groups of golden-cheeked gibbons (Nomascus gabriellae) in the secondary lowland forest in Cat Tien National Park from January 2004 to December 2005 to obtain information about the social organization of this little-studied species, in an area where the population is recovering through increased protection and forest regeneration. DNA from faecal samples of 10 infants and juveniles identified 1 case of extrapair paternity. DNA from faecal samples of 18 adults from three communities revealed the majority of adults sampled of both sexes to be related to adults in neighbouring territories. Overall, the indications are that in this empty habitat, gibbons appear to be able to establish territories adjacent to those of their kin. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.