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      Blood Pressure, Renal Function, and Proteinuria in Children with Unilateral Renal Agenesis

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          Background/Aim: Unilateral renal agenesis (URA) is a model for a reduced nephron number that is believed to be a risk factor for blood pressure (BP) elevation and reduced renal function. The aim of the study was to investigate BP and renal function in children with URA. Methods: Data on children with URA from two pediatric nephrology centers were firstly retrospectively reviewed (renal ultrasound and scintigraphy, clinical BP, creatinine clearance, urinalysis). Children with normal renal ultrasound and scintigraphy were thereafter investigated using ambulatory BP monitoring. Results: Twenty-nine children with URA were investigated – 14 children with an abnormal kidney (mostly scarring) and 15 children with healthy kidneys. Hypertension was diagnosed on the basis of clinical BP in 57% of the children with abnormal kidneys and on the basis of ambulatory BP monitoring in 1 child (7%) with healthy kidneys. The mean ambulatory BP in children with normal kidneys was not significantly different from that in controls. Forty-three percent of the children with abnormal kidneys had a reduced renal function, but none of children with normal kidneys. Conclusions: Children with abnormalities of a solitary kidney have often hypertension, proteinuria, or a reduced renal function. In contrast, children with healthy solitary kidneys have BP and renal function similar to those of healthy children.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Distribution of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in children: normalized reference values and role of body dimensions.

          Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an essential tool in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of arterial hypertension in children. The statistical use of pediatric ABPM reference values has been compromised by the non-Gaussian distribution of 24-h blood pressure (BP) in children. To develop distribution-adjusted pediatric ABPM reference tables. From cross-sectional ABPM data obtained in 949 healthy children and adolescents aged 5-20 years, a set of reference tables was developed for 24-h, daytime and night-time mean values of systolic, diastolic, mean arterial BP and heart rate, utilizing the LMS method to account for the variably skewed distribution of ABPM data. Age- and gender-specific estimates of the distribution median (M), coefficient of variation (S) and degree of skewness (L) were obtained by a maximum-likelihood curve-fitting technique. The estimates of, and can be used to normalize ABPM data to gender and age or height. Re-application of the established, and values in the reference population confirmed appropriate normalization of ABPM values. Height standard deviation scores (SDS), body mass index (BMI) SDS and heart rate SDS were independent positive predictors of 24-h systolic BP SDS. Diastolic 24-h mean BP SDS showed a weak correlation with BMI SDS only. The use of LMS reference tables permits calculation of appropriate SDS values for ABPM in children. Whereas systolic 24-h BP is independently correlated with age, relative height and obesity, diastolic values are almost independent of age and relative height, and weakly associated with relative obesity.
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            National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification.

             ,  Joseph Lau,  Andrew Levey (2003)
            A series of new guidelines has been developed by the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative to improve the detection and management of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In most instances of CKD, the earliest manifestations of the disorder may be identified by relatively simple tests. Unfortunately, CKD is often "underdiagnosed," in part because of the absence of a common definition of CKD and a classification of the stages in its progression. The Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for CKD evaluation, classification, and stratification provide a basis to remedy these deficits. The specific goals of the guidelines described in this review are to provide: 1) an overview of the clinical practice guidelines as they pertain to children and adolescents, 2) a simple classification of the stages of CKD, and 3) a practical approach to the laboratory assessment of kidney disease in children and adolescents. The guidelines were developed as part of an evidence-based evaluation of CKD and its consequences in patients of all ages. The data that were used to generate the guidelines in this article were extracted from a structured analysis of articles that reported on children with CKD. This review presents the definition and 5-stage classification system of CKD developed by the work group assigned to develop the guidelines, and summarizes the major recommendations regarding the early detection of CKD. Major emphasis is placed on the identification of children and adolescents with CKD by measuring the protein-to-creatinine ratio in spot urine specimens and by estimating the glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine using prediction equations.
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              Oscillometric twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children and adolescents: a multicenter trial including 1141 subjects.

              Ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring is increasingly used to evaluate the blood pressure of children and adolescents. The upper normal ABP values in the pediatric age group are still unknown, because reference values based on a sufficiently high number of healthy children have not yet been published. In this multicenter trial, we pooled ABP records of 1141 healthy children and adolescents with a body height between 115 and 185 cm. The study was carried out by seven centers according to a common protocol. The 50th percentile for 24-hour systolic ABP increased moderately with height, from 103 to 113 mm Hg in girls and from 105 to 120 mm Hg in boys. The 50th percentile for diastolic 24-hour means was 66 +/- 1 mm Hg, irrespective of height or gender. Diastolic daytime means were 73 +/- 1 mm Hg, which is remarkably high compared with reference values for casual blood pressure. The mean nocturnal systolic and diastolic ABP (midnight to 6 AM) was 13% +/- 6% and 23% +/- 9% lower compared with the daytime means (8 AM to 8 PM), respectively. This multicenter study provides well-based limits of normal ABP in mid-European children.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                November 2006
                17 November 2006
                : 29
                : 4
                : 210-215
                aDepartment of Pediatrics, 2nd School of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic; bDepartment of Pediatrics, Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, and cDepartment of Pediatrics, St. Elisabeth and St. Barbara Hospital, Halle, Germany
                95735 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:210–215
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 3, References: 42, Pages: 6
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