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      Risk of Prostate Cancer Associated With Familial and Hereditary Cancer Syndromes

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          Abstract

          PURPOSE

          Recently developed clinical guidelines suggest that men in families with specific cancer syndromes, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC), consider genetic testing, especially in the setting of aggressive disease. However, although a family history (FH) of the same disease among close relatives is an established risk factor for prostate cancer (PC), a direct comparison of PC risk for men with each syndrome in a single population is needed.

          METHODS

          The Utah Population Database was used to identify 619,630 men, age ≥ 40 years, who were members of a pedigree that included at least 3 consecutive generations. Each man was evaluated for FH of hereditary PC (HPC), HBOC, and Lynch syndrome (LS) and for his own PC status. PC occurrences (N = 36,360) were classified into one or more subtypes: early onset (EO), lethal, and/or clinically significant. Relative risks (RRs) associated with each subtype, adjusted for important covariables, were calculated in STATA using a modified Poisson regression with robust error variances to obtain corresponding RR CIs for each FH definition.

          RESULTS

          An FH of HPC conveyed the greatest relative risk for all PC subtypes combined (RR, 2.30; 95% CI, 2.22 to 2.40), followed by HBOC and LS (both with 1 < RR < 2 and statistically significant). The strongest risks associated with FH were observed for EO disease in all pedigree types, consistent with the contribution of genetic factors to disease occurrence.

          CONCLUSION

          In this large, population-based, family database, the risk of PC varied by cancer FH and was most strongly associated with EO disease. These results are critically valuable in understanding and targeting high-risk populations that would benefit from genetic screening and enhanced surveillance.

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          Most cited references26

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          Germline mutations in HOXB13 and prostate-cancer risk.

          Family history is a significant risk factor for prostate cancer, although the molecular basis for this association is poorly understood. Linkage studies have implicated chromosome 17q21-22 as a possible location of a prostate-cancer susceptibility gene. We screened more than 200 genes in the 17q21-22 region by sequencing germline DNA from 94 unrelated patients with prostate cancer from families selected for linkage to the candidate region. We tested family members, additional case subjects, and control subjects to characterize the frequency of the identified mutations. Probands from four families were discovered to have a rare but recurrent mutation (G84E) in HOXB13 (rs138213197), a homeobox transcription factor gene that is important in prostate development. All 18 men with prostate cancer and available DNA in these four families carried the mutation. The carrier rate of the G84E mutation was increased by a factor of approximately 20 in 5083 unrelated subjects of European descent who had prostate cancer, with the mutation found in 72 subjects (1.4%), as compared with 1 in 1401 control subjects (0.1%) (P=8.5x10(-7)). The mutation was significantly more common in men with early-onset, familial prostate cancer (3.1%) than in those with late-onset, nonfamilial prostate cancer (0.6%) (P=2.0x10(-6)). The novel HOXB13 G84E variant is associated with a significantly increased risk of hereditary prostate cancer. Although the variant accounts for a small fraction of all prostate cancers, this finding has implications for prostate-cancer risk assessment and may provide new mechanistic insights into this common cancer. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).
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            Germline Mutations in ATM and BRCA1/2 Distinguish Risk for Lethal and Indolent Prostate Cancer and are Associated with Early Age at Death.

            Germline mutations in BRCA1/2 and ATM have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk.
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              Is Open Access

              DNA Repair in Prostate Cancer: Biology and Clinical Implications.

              For more precise, personalized care in prostate cancer (PC), a new classification based on molecular features relevant for prognostication and treatment stratification is needed. Genomic aberrations in the DNA damage repair pathway are common in PC, particularly in late-stage disease, and may be relevant for treatment stratification.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Oncology
                JCO
                American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
                0732-183X
                1527-7755
                June 01 2020
                June 01 2020
                : 38
                : 16
                : 1807-1813
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Oncology, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, MI
                [2 ]Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute, Detroit, MI
                [3 ]University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
                [4 ]Huntsman Cancer Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
                [5 ]Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC
                Article
                10.1200/JCO.19.02808
                32208047
                4df0b78c-5965-4126-89d4-bcb65794639d
                © 2020
                History

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