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      Integrin Targeted Therapeutics

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          Abstract

          Integrins are heterodimeric, transmembrane receptors that function as mechanosensors, adhesion molecules and signal transduction platforms in a multitude of biological processes. As such, integrins are central to the etiology and pathology of many disease states. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of integrins is of great interest for the treatment and prevention of disease. In the last two decades several integrin-targeted drugs have made their way into clinical use, many others are in clinical trials and still more are showing promise as they advance through preclinical development. Herein, this review examines and evaluates the various drugs and compounds targeting integrins and the disease states in which they are implicated.

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          Most cited references129

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          CD40 ligand on activated platelets triggers an inflammatory reaction of endothelial cells.

          CD40 ligand (CD40L, CD154), a transmembrane protein structurally related to the cytokine TNF-alpha, was originally identified on stimulated CD4+ T cells, and later on stimulated mast cells and basophils. Interaction of CD40L on T cells with CD40 on B cells is of paramount importance for the development and function of the humoral immune system. CD40 is not only constitutively present on B cells, but it is also found on monocytes, macrophages and endothelial cells, suggesting that CD40L has a broader function in vivo. We now report that platelets express CD40L within seconds of activation in vitro and in the process of thrombus formation in vivo. Like TNF-alpha and interleukin-1, CD40L on platelets induces endothelial cells to secrete chemokines and to express adhesion molecules, thereby generating signals for the recruitment and extravasation of leukocytes at the site of injury. Our results indicate that platelets are not only involved in haemostasis but that they also directly initiate an inflammatory response of the vessel wall.
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            Crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin alpha Vbeta3 in complex with an Arg-Gly-Asp ligand.

            The structural basis for the divalent cation-dependent binding of heterodimeric alphabeta integrins to their ligands, which contain the prototypical Arg-Gly-Asp sequence, is unknown. Interaction with ligands triggers tertiary and quaternary structural rearrangements in integrins that are needed for cell signaling. Here we report the crystal structure of the extracellular segment of integrin alphaVbeta3 in complex with a cyclic peptide presenting the Arg-Gly-Asp sequence. The ligand binds at the major interface between the alphaV and beta3 subunits and makes extensive contacts with both. Both tertiary and quaternary changes are observed in the presence of ligand. The tertiary rearrangements take place in betaA, the ligand-binding domain of beta3; in the complex, betaA acquires two cations, one of which contacts the ligand Asp directly and the other stabilizes the ligand-binding surface. Ligand binding induces small changes in the orientation of alphaV relative to beta3.
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              Integrins in angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.

              Blood vessels promote tumour growth, and both blood and lymphatic vessels facilitate tumour metastasis by serving as conduits for the transport of tumour cells to new sites. Angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are regulated by integrins, which are members of a family of cell surface receptors whose ligands are extracellular matrix proteins and immunoglobulin superfamily molecules. Select integrins promote endothelial cell migration and survival during angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, whereas other integrins promote pro-angiogenic macrophage trafficking to tumours. Several integrin-targeted therapeutic agents are currently in clinical trials for cancer therapy. Here, we review the evidence implicating integrins as a family of fundamental regulators of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Theranostics
                thno
                Theranostics
                Ivyspring International Publisher (Sydney )
                1838-7640
                2011
                17 February 2011
                : 1
                : 154-188
                Affiliations
                Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, PSC304 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089
                Author notes
                ✉ Corresponding author: Dr. Nouri Neamati, Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Southern California, School of Pharmacy, PSC304 1985 Zonal Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90089; E-mail: neamati@ 123456usc.edu

                Conflict of Interest: The authors have declared that no conflict of interest exists.

                Article
                thnov01p0154
                10.7150/thno/v01p0154
                3086618
                21547158
                4df2e6a5-7b3a-4c98-a881-2451504e70f3
                © Ivyspring International Publisher. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). Reproduction is permitted for personal, noncommercial use, provided that the article is in whole, unmodified, and properly cited.
                Categories
                Review

                Molecular medicine
                integrin-targeted therapeutics,abciximab,tirofiban,eptifibatide,natalizumab,cilengitide,abegrin,acute coronary syndromes,multiple sclerosis,crohn's disease,cancer,angiogenesis,osteoporosis,age related macular degeneration,integrin-targeted small molecules,integrin-targeted peptides,integrin-targeted therapeutic antibodies

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