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      The Synthetic Metalloproteinase Inhibitor Batimastat Suppresses Injury-Induced Phosphorylation of MAP Kinase ERK1/ERK2 and Phenotypic Modification of Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells in vitro

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          Smooth muscle cell (SMC) migration and proliferation are important events in the formation of intimal lesions associated with atherosclerosis and restenosis following balloon angioplasty. The extracellular matrix has important functions in modulating SMC structure and function, but less is known about the role of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their endogenous tissue inhibitors. The present study investigates the effects of the synthetic MMP inhibitor batimastat (BB94) on vascular SMCs. As experimental model, rat aortic smooth muscle cells in primary and secondary cultures were employed. Electron microscopy was used to investigate the effects of BB94 on the overall phenotypic properties of the cells. Induction of DNA synthesis and migration was studied by thymidine autoradiography and counting of cells moving into an injured zone. Gelatin zymography was used for the detection of BB94-mediated inhibition of injury-induced MMP activity. Phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK1/ERK2, two potential mediators of the injury-induced activation of the cells, was measured by Western blotting. The results show that BB94 restrained the phenotypic modulation of vascular SMCs in primary cultures and suppressed injury-induced DNA synthesis and migration. Moreover, the upregulation of ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation in injured secondary cultures and in cells treated with bFGF was markedly reduced by BB94, whereas TIMP-2 lacked a clear effect. Our data suggest that BB94 inhibits injury-induced activation of vascular SMCs by acting on MMPs as well as other targets.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in matrix remodeling.

          The matrix metalloproteinases are a tightly regulated family of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix and basement membrane components. Recent evidence suggests that these proteases and their specific inhibitors play important roles in normal developmental processes and in pathological conditions. Interestingly, experiments designed to improve our understanding of metalloproteinase regulation have also resulted in new insights into mechanisms by which growth factors and proto-oncogenes may regulate biological processes.
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            Integrins can collaborate with growth factors for phosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases and MAP kinase activation: roles of integrin aggregation and occupancy of receptors

            Integrins mediate cell adhesion, migration, and a variety of signal transduction events. These integrin actions can overlap or even synergize with those of growth factors. We examined for mechanisms of collaboration or synergy between integrins and growth factors involving MAP kinases, which regulate many cellular functions. In cooperation with integrins, the growth factors EGF, PDGF-BB, and basic FGF each produced a marked, transient activation of the ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) class of MAP kinase, but only if the integrins were both aggregated and occupied by ligand. Transmembrane accumulation of total tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins, as well as nonsynergistic MAP kinase activation, could be induced by simple integrin aggregation, whereas enhanced transient accumulation of the EGF-receptor substrate eps8 required integrin aggregation and occupancy, as well as EGF treatment. Each type of growth factor receptor was itself induced to aggregate transiently by integrin ligand-coated beads in a process requiring both aggregation and occupancy of integrin receptors, but not the presence of growth factor ligand. Synergism was also observed between integrins and growth factors for triggering tyrosine phosphorylation of EGF, PDGF, and FGF receptors. This collaborative response also required both integrin aggregation and occupancy. These studies identify mechanisms in the signal transduction response to integrins and growth factors that require various combinations of integrin aggregation and ligands for integrin or growth factor receptors, providing opportunities for collaboration between these major regulatory systems.
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              Mechanism Of Cell Surface Activation Of 72-kDa Type IV Collagenase


                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                October 2000
                02 October 2000
                : 37
                : 5
                : 345-354
                aDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, Section for Connective Tissue Biology, Lund University, Lund, and bDepartment of Cell and Molecular Biology, Medical Nobel Institute, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                25750 J Vasc Res 2000;37:345–354
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 61, Pages: 10
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