At present, there are very few studies that look at the effect of uremia, prednisone and cyclosporine therapy on the lipid profiles of children. This effect is important because of the potential association of hyperlipidemia and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and glomerulosclerosis. We measured fasting lipid profiles in 73 children. There were 21 controls, 18 patients treated with cyclosporine and prednisone, 9 patients treated with cyclosporine alone and 25 dialysis patients. Lipoprotein (a) levels were measured using direct binding ‘sandwich’ ELISA. Uremic children had higher levels of triglycerides and very-low-density lipoprotein as compared with the control group. Children receiving combination of cyclosporine and prednisone also had higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein, very-low-density lipoprotein as compared to the control group. However, children receiving cyclosporine monotherapy had lipid profiles similar to the control group. Patients receiving cyclosporine and prednisone had higher total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein as compared with the dialysis group. Evaluating lipoprotein (a) levels, children on cyclosporine monotherapy had lower lipoprotein (a) levels as compared with children on dialysis and those receiving both combination therapy. The total cholesterol/ high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio (TC/HDL) was similar among the study groups. In summary, uremic children and children receiving steroids with cyclosporine have elevated lipid levels. However, the increased risk for atherosclerosis is not evident because of similar levels of lipoprotein (a) and TC/HDL ratios among the study groups.