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      Is Open Access

      Hydraena (s.str.) dinarica, new species (Coleoptera: Hydraenidae) along with further records of Hydraena spp. from Durmitor National Park, Montenegro and comments on the DNA barcoding problem with the genus

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          Long-palped Water Beetles were collected during a taxon expedition in Montenegro which involved citizen scientists, students and taxonomists. The material was collected from springs, brooks, fens and the Tara River, at altitudes between 600 m and 1450 m above sea level, using fine-meshed hand-nets and by manual checking of submerged substrates. The morphological species delimitation was supplemented and congruent with mtDNA sequences mainly obtained in the field using the newly-developed MinION-based ONTrack pipeline.

          New information

          The new species Hydraena dinarica Freitag & de Vries, sp. n. from Durmitor Mt. is described, illustrated and compared in detail to closely-related congeners of the H. saga d'Orchymont, 1930/ H. emarginata Rey, 1885 species complex. Five additional species and female specimens of two unidentified morphospecies of the genus were also recorded in the vicinity of Durmitor National Park. New records and the first DNA barcodes for Hydraena biltoni Jäch & Díaz, 2012 (endemic to Montenegro) and H. morio Kiesenwetter, 1849 are provided. Further records of H. nigrita Germar, 1824, H. minutissima Stephens, 1829, H. subintegra Ganglbauer, 1901 and females of two unidentified morphospecies are commented upon. The resulting inter- and intraspecific genetic distances and some observations of low or zero sequence divergence between recently-diverged species of Hydraena Kugelann, 1794 are briefly discussed.

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          Most cited references 53

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          MEGA X: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis across Computing Platforms.

          The Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software implements many analytical methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. Here, we report a transformation of Mega to enable cross-platform use on Microsoft Windows and Linux operating systems. Mega X does not require virtualization or emulation software and provides a uniform user experience across platforms. Mega X has additionally been upgraded to use multiple computing cores for many molecular evolutionary analyses. Mega X is available in two interfaces (graphical and command line) and can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            Biological identifications through DNA barcodes.

            Although much biological research depends upon species diagnoses, taxonomic expertise is collapsing. We are convinced that the sole prospect for a sustainable identification capability lies in the construction of systems that employ DNA sequences as taxon 'barcodes'. We establish that the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) can serve as the core of a global bioidentification system for animals. First, we demonstrate that COI profiles, derived from the low-density sampling of higher taxonomic categories, ordinarily assign newly analysed taxa to the appropriate phylum or order. Second, we demonstrate that species-level assignments can be obtained by creating comprehensive COI profiles. A model COI profile, based upon the analysis of a single individual from each of 200 closely allied species of lepidopterans, was 100% successful in correctly identifying subsequent specimens. When fully developed, a COI identification system will provide a reliable, cost-effective and accessible solution to the current problem of species identification. Its assembly will also generate important new insights into the diversification of life and the rules of molecular evolution.
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              popart: full-feature software for haplotype network construction


                Author and article information

                Biodivers Data J
                Biodivers Data J
                Biodiversity Data Journal
                Pensoft Publishers
                12 January 2021
                : 9
                [1 ] Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City, Philippines Ateneo de Manila University Quezon City Philippines
                [2 ] Amstelveenseweg 980B, Amsterdam, Netherlands Amstelveenseweg 980B Amsterdam Netherlands
                [3 ] University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie 15, Verona, Italy University of Verona, Department of Biotechnology, Strada Le Grazie 15 Verona Italy
                [4 ] Oxford Brookes University, Department of Health and Life Sciences, Oxford, United Kingdom Oxford Brookes University, Department of Health and Life Sciences Oxford United Kingdom
                [5 ] 39 av Melbourne, Mont-Royal, Quebec, Canada 39 av Melbourne, Mont-Royal Quebec Canada
                [6 ] 340 N. Adams Street, Eugene, Oregon, United States of America 340 N. Adams Street Eugene, Oregon United States of America
                [7 ] Taxon Expeditions, Rembrandtstraat 20, Leiden, Netherlands Taxon Expeditions, Rembrandtstraat 20 Leiden Netherlands
                [8 ] Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2, Leiden, Netherlands Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Darwinweg 2 Leiden Netherlands
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Hendrik Freitag ( hfreitag@ 123456ateneo.edu ).

                Academic editor: David Bilton

                59892 14271
                Hendrik Freitag, Rick de Vries, Marta Paterno, Simone Maestri, Massimo Delledonne, Cameron G Thompson, Helena Lamed, Rebekah Lambert, Michael F Fox, Mariela C Gonzalez, Emmanuel D Delocado, Marc R Sabordo, Clister V Pangantihon, Iva Njunjić

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 8, Tables: 1, References: 51
                Taxonomic Paper
                Taxon Expeditions
                Molecular systematics
                Freshwater Biota & Ecosystems
                Aquatic biology
                Faunistics & Distribution
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Southern Europe and Mediterranean


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