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      The role of global reanalyses in climate services for health: Insights from the Lancet Countdown

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          Abstract

          As the linkages between extreme weather events, changes in climatic conditions and health impacts in exposed populations become clearer, so does the need for climate‐smart decisions aimed at making the public health sector more responsive and resilient. By integrating climate and health information, climate services for health provide robust decision‐support tools. The Lancet Countdown monitoring system uses global climate reanalyses products to track annual changes in a set of health‐related outcomes. In the monitoring system, multiple variables from reanalysis datasets such as ERA5 and ERA5‐Land are retrieved and processed to capture heatwaves, precipitation extremes, wildfires, droughts, warming and ecosystem changes across the globe and over multiple decades. This reanalysis‐derived information is then input into a hazard–exposure–vulnerability framework that delivers, as outcomes, indicators tracking the year‐by‐year impacts of climate‐related hazards on human mortality, labour capacity, physical activity, sentiment, infectious disease transmission, and food security and undernutrition. Building on the reanalysis gridded format, the indicators create worldwide ‘maps without gaps’ of climate–health linkages. Our experience shows that reanalysis datasets allow standardization across the climate information used in the framework, making the system potentially adaptable to multiple geographical scales. An ongoing challenge is to quantify how the inherent bias of global reanalyses influences indicator outcomes. We foresee the health sector as a key user of reanalysis products. Therefore, public health professionals and health impact modellers should be involved in the co‐development of future iterations of reanalysis datasets, to reach finer spatial resolutions and provide a wider set of health‐relevant climate variables.

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          The ERA5 Global Reanalysis

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            The 2020 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: responding to converging crises

            For the Chinese, French, German, and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.
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              The 2019 report of The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change: ensuring that the health of a child born today is not defined by a changing climate

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                Author and article information

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                Journal
                Meteorological Applications
                Meteorological Applications
                Wiley
                1350-4827
                1469-8080
                March 2023
                March 23 2023
                March 2023
                : 30
                : 2
                Affiliations
                [1 ] School of Agriculture, Policy and Development University of Reading Reading UK
                [2 ] Department of Geography and Environmental Science University of Reading Reading UK
                [3 ] Institute for Global Health University College London London UK
                [4 ] Data Science Institute Columbia University New York New York USA
                [5 ] Institute for Environmental Science University of Geneva Geneva Switzerland
                [6 ] Euro‐Mediterranean Center on Climate Change Venice Italy
                [7 ] Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE) London UK
                [8 ] Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation Virginia Tech Blacksburg Virginia USA
                [9 ] Gangarosa Department of Environmental Health, Rollins School of Public Health Emory University Atlanta Georgia USA
                [10 ] Finnish Meteorological Institute Helsinki Finland
                [11 ] Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC) Barcelona Spain
                [12 ] Department of Epidemiology Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research Braunschweig Germany
                [13 ] Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies (ICREA) Barcelona Spain
                [14 ] Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, School of Public Health Imperial College London London UK
                [15 ] MRC Unit the Gambia at London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Fajara The Gambia
                [16 ] Iranian Fisheries Science Research Institute, Agriculture Research, Education, and Extension Organisation Tehran Iran
                [17 ] Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries (AKUATROP), Universiti Malaysia Terengganu Terengganu Malaysia
                [18 ] Department of Biomaterials, Saveetha Dental College Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences Chennai India
                Article
                10.1002/met.2122
                4e10367e-f32e-45af-8d79-1d20d3699be7
                © 2023

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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