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      Trichothurgus bolithophilus sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) a bee nesting in horse manure pads in Patagonia, Argentina

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          A new species of Trichothurgus, described herein, T. bolitophilus sp. n., nests in dry horse manure pads in Chubut, Patagonia, Argentina. The simplest nests consisted of one main tunnel ending in a series of 2 cells without partitions between them. In the more complex ones up to 6 cells were connected laterally to the main tunnel. Nests showed signs of reutilization. The behavior of nesting in horse manure is described for the first time in bees.

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          Most cited references 7

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          Why do leafcutter bees cut leaves? New insights into the early evolution of bees.

          Stark contrasts in clade species diversity are reported across the tree of life and are especially conspicuous when observed in closely related lineages. The explanation for such disparity has often been attributed to the evolution of key innovations that facilitate colonization of new ecological niches. The factors underlying diversification in bees remain poorly explored. Bees are thought to have originated from apoid wasps during the Mid-Cretaceous, a period that coincides with the appearance of angiosperm eudicot pollen grains in the fossil record. The reliance of bees on angiosperm pollen and their fundamental role as angiosperm pollinators have contributed to the idea that both groups may have undergone simultaneous radiations. We demonstrate that one key innovation--the inclusion of foreign material in nest construction--underlies both a massive range expansion and a significant increase in the rate of diversification within the second largest bee family, Megachilidae. Basal clades within the family are restricted to deserts and exhibit plesiomorphic features rarely observed among modern bees, but prevalent among apoid wasps. Our results suggest that early bees inherited a suite of behavioural traits that acted as powerful evolutionary constraints. While the transition to pollen as a larval food source opened an enormous ecological niche for the early bees, the exploitation of this niche and the subsequent diversification of bees only became possible after bees had evolved adaptations to overcome these constraints.
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            Social Organization in reactivated nests of three species ofXylocopa (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae) in southeastern Brasil

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              Nest re-use and communal nesting inMicrothurge corumbae (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae), with special reference to nest defense

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                October 15 2012
                October 15 2012
                : 29
                : 1-14
                Article
                10.3897/jhr.29.3529
                © 2012

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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