Objective To gain a better understanding of the emotional and behavioral problems associated determinants of primary and middle school students from Guangdong Province during the COVID-19 pandemic, so as to provide a basis for developing targeted intervention strategies.
Methods Using the method of convenience sampling, an online questionnaire survey was carried out among primary and middle school students from Guangzhou, Zhanjiang and Zhongshan from March to April 2020. The emotional and behavioral problems of primary and middle school students were assessed using the Conners’ Parental Symptoms Questionnaire (PSQ), and a self-compiled questionnaire was used to collect basic information related to the primary and middle school students and the influencing factors of emotional and behavioral problems. A total of 7 755 valid questionnaires were retrieved and statistically analyzed using the chi-square test and multivariate Logistic regression.
Results The detection rate of emotional and behavioral problems among children and adolescents aged 6 to 17-years-old in Guangdong Province was 14.8%; that was 21.0%, 14.4%, 7.3%, and 10.1% in lower primary school students, upper primary school students, junior high school students, and high school students, respectively. The detection rate of the psychosomatic and hyperactivity index in boys was higher than that observed in girls, and the detection rate of anxiety in boys was lower than that observed in girls ( P<0.05). There were statistically significant differences in emotional and behavioral problems in children in different grades ( P<0.05). The results of the regression analysis showed that male students were at risk of psychosomatic ( OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.04-1.82) and hyperactivity disorders ( OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.21-2.06), whereas the male gender was a protective factor for anxiety ( OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.39-0.64). Grades were identified as the influencing factors of all of the factors related to emotional and behavioral problems. Students who reported excessive screen time and insufficient sleep were more likely to experience emotional and behavioral problems.
Conclusion The detection rate of emotional and behavioral problems among primary and middle school students in Guangdong Province during the COVID-19 epidemic was high, which was associated with sex, grade, screen time and sleep. It is necessary to develop and implement targeted intervention measures.
【摘要】 目的 了解广东省中小学生新冠肺炎疫情期间情绪行为问题现况及其影响因素, 为制定针对性干预措施提供依据。 方法 于 2020 年 3—4 月, 方便选取广州市、湛江市和中山市 7 755 名中小学生进行线上问卷调査, 采用 Conners 父母症状问卷 (PSQ) 评定情绪行为问题, 使用自编生活行为方式调査问卷收集中小学生的基本情况和情绪行为问题影响因素。采用妒检验分析不同性别、学段中小学生情绪行为问题检出率的差异, 采用 Logistic 回归模型分析情绪行为问题影响因素。 结果 广东省 6~17 岁中小学生情绪行为问题总检出率为 14.8%, 其中小学低年级学生、小学髙年级学生、初中生和髙中生情绪行为问题检出率分别为 21.0%, 14.4%, 7.3% 和 10.1%。男生心身问题、多动指数检出率 (3.4%, 4.1%) 髙于女生 (2.3%, 2.5%), 焦虑检出率 (2.8%) 低于女生 (4.9%) (χ 2 值分别为 8.08, 14.40, 25.38, P 值均<0.05)。不同学段学生情绪行为问题各因子异常检出率差异均有统计学意义 (χ 2 值分别为 88.88, 228.00, 28.28, 85.19, 15.66, 39.33, P 值均<0.05)。Logistic 回归分析结果显示, 男生存在心身问题 ( OR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.04~1.82)、多动指数 ( OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.21~2.06)异常的风险髙于女生, 发生焦虑 ( OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.39〜0.64) 风险低于女生;学段是情绪行为问题各因子异常的影响因素。视屏时间过长、睡眠时长不达标的学生更易出现情绪行为问题。 结论 广东省中小学生在新冠肺炎疫情期间情绪行为问题检出率较髙, 性别、学段、视屏时间和睡眠是中小学生情绪行为问题的影响因素, 应进行针对性的分类干预。