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      The effect of electrical conductivity of myocardium on cardiac pumping efficacy: a computational study

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          Abstract

          Background and aims

          The existence of non-excitable cells in the myocardium leads to the increasing conduction non-uniformity and decreasing myocardial electrical conductivity. Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (MCV) believed to enhance the probability of cardiac arryhthmia and alter the cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, even in sinus rhythm. Though several studies on the correlation between MCV and cardiac electrical instabilities exist, there has been no study concerning correlation or causality between MCV and cardiac mechanical pumping efficacy, due to the limitation in clinical methods to document and evaluate cardiac mechanical responses directly. The goal of this study was to examine quantitatively the cardiac pumping efficacy under various MCV conditions using three-dimensional (3D) electromechanical model of canine’s failing ventricle.

          Methods

          The electromechanical model used in this study composed of the electrical model coupled with the mechanical contraction model along with a lumped model of the circulatory system. The electrical model consisted of 241,725 nodes and 1,298,751 elements of tetrahedral mesh, whereas the mechanical model consisted of 356 nodes and 172 elements of hexahedral mesh with Hermite basis. First, we performed the electrical simulation for five different MCV conditions, from 30 to 70 cm/s with 10 cm/s interval during sinus pacing. Then, we compared the cardiac electrical and mechanical responses of each MCV condition, such as the electrical activation time (EAT), pressure, volume, and energy consumption of the myocardium. The energy consumption of the myocardium was calculated by integrating ATP consumption rate of each node in myofilament model.

          Results

          The result showed that under higher MCV conditions, the EAT, energy consumption, end diastolic and systolic volume are gradually decreased. Meanwhile, the systolic pressure, stroke volume, stroke work, and stroke work to ATP are increased as the MCV values increased. The cardiac functions and performances are more efficient under higher MCV conditions by consuming smaller energy (ATP) while carrying more works.

          Conclusion

          In conclusion, this study reveals that MCV has strong correlation with the cardiac pumping efficacy. The obtained results provide useful information to estimate the effect of MCV on the electro-physiology and hemodynamic responses of the ventricle and can be used for further study about arrhythmogeneis and heart failure.

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          Most cited references12

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          Total excitation of the isolated human heart.

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            Determinants of myocardial conduction velocity: implications for arrhythmogenesis

            Slowed myocardial conduction velocity (θ) is associated with an increased risk of re-entrant excitation, predisposing to cardiac arrhythmia. θ is determined by the ion channel and physical properties of cardiac myocytes and by their interconnections. Thus, θ is closely related to the maximum rate of action potential (AP) depolarization [(dV/dt)max], as determined by the fast Na+ current (I Na); the axial resistance (r a) to local circuit current flow between cells; their membrane capacitances (c m); and to the geometrical relationship between successive myocytes within cardiac tissue. These determinants are altered by a wide range of pathophysiological conditions. Firstly, I Na is reduced by the impaired Na+ channel function that arises clinically during heart failure, ischemia, tachycardia, and following treatment with class I antiarrhythmic drugs. Such reductions also arise as a consequence of mutations in SCN5A such as those occurring in Lenègre disease, Brugada syndrome (BrS), sick sinus syndrome, and atrial fibrillation (AF). Secondly, r a, may be increased due to gap junction decoupling following ischemia, ventricular hypertrophy, and heart failure, or as a result of mutations in CJA5 found in idiopathic AF and atrial standstill. Finally, either r a or c m could potentially be altered by fibrotic change through the resultant decoupling of myocyte–myocyte connections and coupling of myocytes with fibroblasts. Such changes are observed in myocardial infarction and cardiomyopathy or following mutations in MHC403 and SCN5A resulting in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) or Lenègre disease, respectively. This review defines and quantifies the determinants of θ and summarizes experimental evidence that links changes in these determinants with reduced myocardial θ and arrhythmogenesis. It thereby identifies the diverse pathophysiological conditions in which abnormal θ may contribute to arrhythmia.
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              Mechanisms of cardiac conduction: a history of revisions.

              Cardiac conduction is the process by which electrical excitation spreads through the heart, triggering individual myocytes to contract in synchrony. Defects in conduction disrupt synchronous activation and are associated with life-threatening arrhythmias in many pathologies. Therefore, it is scarcely surprising that this phenomenon continues to be the subject of active scientific inquiry. Here we provide a brief review of how the conceptual understanding of conduction has evolved over the last century and highlight recent, potentially paradigm-shifting developments.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                ana@kumoh.ac.kr
                kmlim@kumoh.ac.kr
                Journal
                Biomed Eng Online
                Biomed Eng Online
                BioMedical Engineering OnLine
                BioMed Central (London )
                1475-925X
                10 January 2017
                10 January 2017
                2017
                : 16
                : 11
                Affiliations
                Department of IT Convergence Engineering, Kumoh National Institute of Technology, 61 Daehak-ro, Gumi, 39177 South Korea
                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0001-6729-8129
                Article
                295
                10.1186/s12938-016-0295-6
                5234125
                28086779
                4e27689b-98ac-4b5d-8749-028563aa9e5c
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 8 July 2016
                : 8 December 2016
                Funding
                Funded by: IITP
                Award ID: IITP-2015-H8601-15-1011
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Biomedical engineering
                conduction velocity,electromechanical model,cardiac pumping efficacy

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