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      Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) for the Diagnosis of Zika Virus: A Review

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          Abstract

          The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas and its devastating developmental and neurological manifestations has prompted the development of field-based diagnostics that are rapid, reliable, handheld, specific, sensitive, and inexpensive. The gold standard molecular method for lab-based diagnosis of ZIKV, from either patient samples or insect vectors, is reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). The method, however, is costly and requires lab-based equipment and expertise, which severely limits its use as a point-of-care (POC) tool in resource-poor settings. Moreover, given the lack of antivirals or approved vaccines for ZIKV infection, a POC diagnostic test is urgently needed for the early detection of new outbreaks and to adequately manage patients. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a compelling alternative to RT-qPCR for ZIKV and other arboviruses. This low-cost molecular system can be freeze-dried for distribution and exhibits high specificity, sensitivity, and efficiency. A growing body of evidence suggests that LAMP assays can provide greater accessibility to much-needed diagnostics for ZIKV infections, especially in developing countries where the ZIKV is now endemic. This review summarizes the different LAMP methods that have been developed for the virus and summarizes their features, advantages, and limitations.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP): a rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnostic method for infectious diseases

          Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an established nucleic acid amplification method offering rapid, accurate, and cost-effective diagnosis of infectious diseases. This technology has been developed into commercially available detection kits for a variety of pathogens including bacteria and viruses. The current focus on LAMP methodology is as a diagnostic system to be employed in resource-limited laboratories in developing countries, where many fatal tropical diseases are endemic. The combination of LAMP and novel microfluidic technologies such as Lab-on-a-chip may facilitate the realization of genetic point-of-care testing systems to be used by both developed and developing countries in the near future. This review will describe the historical, current, and future developments of such technologies.
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            Full-length sequencing and genomic characterization of Bagaza, Kedougou, and Zika viruses.

             G Kuno,  F. Chang (2006)
            Many members of the genus Flavivirus are the agents of important diseases of humans, livestock, and wildlife. Currently, no complete genome sequence is available for the three African viruses, Bagaza, Zika, and Kedougou viruses, each representing a distinct virus subgroup according to the latest virus classification. In this study, we obtained a complete genome sequence of each of those three viruses and characterized the open reading frames (ORFs) with respect to gene sizes, cleavage sites, potential glycosylation sites, distribution of cysteine residues, and unique motifs. The sequences of the three viruses were then scanned across the entire length of the ORF against available sequences of other African flaviviruses and selected reference viruses for genetic relatedness. The data collectively indicated that Kedougou virus was close to dengue viruses but nonetheless distinct, while Bagaza virus shared genetic relatedness with West Nile virus in several genomic regions. In the non-coding regions, it was found that a particular organizational pattern of conserved sequences in the 3' terminal region generally correlated with the current virus grouping.
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              Zika virus infection complicated by Guillain-Barre syndrome--case report, French Polynesia, December 2013.

               E Oehler,  L Watrin,  P Larre (2014)
              Zika fever, considered as an emerging disease of arboviral origin, because of its expanding geographic area, is known as a benign infection usually presenting as an influenza-like illness with cutaneous rash. So far, Zika virus infection has never led to hospitalisation. We describe the first case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) occurring immediately after a Zika virus infection, during the current Zika and type 1 and 3 dengue fever co-epidemics in French Polynesia.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                23 December 2019
                January 2020
                : 12
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Virology, Aggeu Magalhaes Institute (IAM), Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), 50670-420 Recife, Brazil; jeffersonbiotecviro@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3M2, Canada; keith.pardee@ 123456utoronto.ca
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: lindomar.pena@ 123456cpqam.fiocruz.br ; Tel.: +55-81-2123-7849
                Article
                viruses-12-00019
                10.3390/v12010019
                7019470
                31877989
                4e28a71c-b097-46f3-8fdb-39d1255c96b8
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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