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      Longitudinal Location Influences Preference for Daylight Saving Time

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          Abstract

          The chronobiology community advocates ending the biannual practice in many countries of adjusting their clocks to observe Daylight Saving Time (DST). Many governments are actively considering abandoning this practice. While sleep and circadian experts advocate the adoption of year-round standard time, most jurisdictions are instead considering permanent DST. In guiding advocacy, it is useful to understand the factors that lead governments and citizens to prefer the various options. In October 2021, the Canadian province of Alberta conducted a province-wide referendum on adopting year-round DST, in which more than 1 million valid votes were cast. As this referendum was tied to province-wide municipal elections, the results of the referendum were reported at the community level, allowing a geospatial analysis of preference for permanent DST. While the referendum proposal was narrowly defeated (49.8% in favor), a community-level analysis demonstrated a significant East-West gradient, with eastern communities more strongly in favor and western communities more strongly opposed to the year-round DST. Community size and latitudinal position also contributed to preference, with smaller and more northern communities showing more preference for year-round DST. These findings help identify how geospatial location can influence how citizens feel about the various time options and can further help guide public advocacy efforts by the sleep and circadian communities.

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          Most cited references16

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          Social jetlag: misalignment of biological and social time.

          Humans show large differences in the preferred timing of their sleep and activity. This so-called "chronotype" is largely regulated by the circadian clock. Both genetic variations in clock genes and environmental influences contribute to the distribution of chronotypes in a given population, ranging from extreme early types to extreme late types with the majority falling between these extremes. Social (e.g., school and work) schedules interfere considerably with individual sleep preferences in the majority of the population. Late chronotypes show the largest differences in sleep timing between work and free days leading to a considerable sleep debt on work days, for which they compensate on free days. The discrepancy between work and free days, between social and biological time, can be described as 'social jetlag.' Here, we explore how sleep quality and psychological wellbeing are associated with individual chronotype and/or social jetlag. A total of 501 volunteers filled out the Munich ChronoType Questionnaire (MCTQ) as well as additional questionnaires on: (i) sleep quality (SF-A), (ii) current psychological wellbeing (Basler Befindlichkeitsbogen), (iii) retrospective psychological wellbeing over the past week (POMS), and (iv) consumption of stimulants (e.g., caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol). Associations of chronotype, wellbeing, and stimulant consumption are strongest in teenagers and young adults up to age 25 yrs. The most striking correlation exists between chronotype and smoking, which is significantly higher in late chronotypes of all ages (except for those in retirement). We show these correlations are most probably a consequence of social jetlag, i.e., the discrepancies between social and biological timing rather than a simple association to different chronotypes. Our results strongly suggest that work (and school) schedules should be adapted to chronotype whenever possible.
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            Changing to daylight saving time cuts into sleep and increases workplace injuries.

            The authors examine the differential influence of time changes associated with Daylight Saving Time on sleep quantity and associated workplace injuries. In Study 1, the authors used a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health database of mining injuries for the years 1983-2006, and they found that in comparison with other days, on Mondays directly following the switch to Daylight Saving Time-in which 1 hr is lost-workers sustain more workplace injuries and injuries of greater severity. In Study 2, the authors used a Bureau of Labor Statistics database of time use for the years 2003-2006, and they found indirect evidence for the mediating role of sleep in the Daylight Saving Time-injuries relationship, showing that on Mondays directly following the switch to Daylight Saving Time, workers sleep on average 40 min less than on other days. On Mondays directly following the switch to Standard Time-in which 1 hr is gained-there are no significant differences in sleep, injury quantity, or injury severity.
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              Shifts to and from daylight saving time and incidence of myocardial infarction.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Biol Rhythms
                J Biol Rhythms
                JBR
                spjbr
                Journal of Biological Rhythms
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                0748-7304
                1552-4531
                5 April 2022
                June 2022
                : 37
                : 3
                : 343-348
                Affiliations
                [* ]Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
                []Hotchkiss Brain Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
                []Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada
                [§ ]St. Francis High School, Calgary, AB, Canada
                Author notes
                [*] [1 ]Michael C. Antle, Department of Psychology, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive Northwest, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada; e-mail: antlem@ 123456ucalgary.ca .
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-5178-4683
                Article
                10.1177_07487304221089401
                10.1177/07487304221089401
                9160949
                35382618
                4e30191a-fc11-4518-add2-d553b9b36bca
                © 2022 The Author(s)

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

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                Letter
                Custom metadata
                ts1

                Cell biology
                longitude,latitude,daylight saving time,standard time
                Cell biology
                longitude, latitude, daylight saving time, standard time

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