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      Calcium and Excitation-Contraction Coupling in the Heart

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          Abstract

          Cardiac contractility is regulated by changes in intracellular Ca concentration ([Ca 2+] i). Normal function requires that [Ca 2+] i be sufficiently high in systole and low in diastole. Much of the Ca needed for contraction comes from the sarcoplasmic reticulum and is released by the process of calcium-induced calcium release. The factors that regulate and fine-tune the initiation and termination of release are reviewed. The precise control of intracellular Ca cycling depends on the relationships between the various channels and pumps that are involved. We consider 2 aspects: (1) structural coupling: the transporters are organized within the dyad, linking the transverse tubule and sarcoplasmic reticulum and ensuring close proximity of Ca entry to sites of release. (2) Functional coupling: where the fluxes across all membranes must be balanced such that, in the steady state, Ca influx equals Ca efflux on every beat. The remainder of the review considers specific aspects of Ca signaling, including the role of Ca buffers, mitochondria, Ca leak, and regulation of diastolic [Ca 2+] i.

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          Most cited references 155

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          Store-operated calcium channels.

          In electrically nonexcitable cells, Ca(2+) influx is essential for regulating a host of kinetically distinct processes involving exocytosis, enzyme control, gene regulation, cell growth and proliferation, and apoptosis. The major Ca(2+) entry pathway in these cells is the store-operated one, in which the emptying of intracellular Ca(2+) stores activates Ca(2+) influx (store-operated Ca(2+) entry, or capacitative Ca(2+) entry). Several biophysically distinct store-operated currents have been reported, but the best characterized is the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) current, I(CRAC). Although it was initially considered to function only in nonexcitable cells, growing evidence now points towards a central role for I(CRAC)-like currents in excitable cells too. In spite of intense research, the signal that relays the store Ca(2+) content to CRAC channels in the plasma membrane, as well as the molecular identity of the Ca(2+) sensor within the stores, remains elusive. Resolution of these issues would be greatly helped by the identification of the CRAC channel gene. In some systems, evidence suggests that store-operated channels might be related to TRP homologs, although no consensus has yet been reached. Better understood are mechanisms that inactivate store-operated entry and hence control the overall duration of Ca(2+) entry. Recent work has revealed a central role for mitochondria in the regulation of I(CRAC), and this is particularly prominent under physiological conditions. I(CRAC) therefore represents a dynamic interplay between endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria, and plasma membrane. In this review, we describe the key electrophysiological features of I(CRAC) and other store-operated Ca(2+) currents and how they are regulated, and we consider recent advances that have shed insight into the molecular mechanisms involved in this ubiquitous and vital Ca(2+) entry pathway.
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            Store-Operated Calcium Channels.

             Murali Prakriya (corresponding) ,  Richard S. Lewis (2015)
            Store-operated calcium channels (SOCs) are a major pathway for calcium signaling in virtually all metozoan cells and serve a wide variety of functions ranging from gene expression, motility, and secretion to tissue and organ development and the immune response. SOCs are activated by the depletion of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), triggered physiologically through stimulation of a diverse set of surface receptors. Over 15 years after the first characterization of SOCs through electrophysiology, the identification of the STIM proteins as ER Ca(2+) sensors and the Orai proteins as store-operated channels has enabled rapid progress in understanding the unique mechanism of store-operate calcium entry (SOCE). Depletion of Ca(2+) from the ER causes STIM to accumulate at ER-plasma membrane (PM) junctions where it traps and activates Orai channels diffusing in the closely apposed PM. Mutagenesis studies combined with recent structural insights about STIM and Orai proteins are now beginning to reveal the molecular underpinnings of these choreographic events. This review describes the major experimental advances underlying our current understanding of how ER Ca(2+) depletion is coupled to the activation of SOCs. Particular emphasis is placed on the molecular mechanisms of STIM and Orai activation, Orai channel properties, modulation of STIM and Orai function, pharmacological inhibitors of SOCE, and the functions of STIM and Orai in physiology and disease.
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              The physiological role of mitochondrial calcium revealed by mice lacking the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU)

              Mitochondrial calcium has been postulated to regulate a wide range of processes from bioenergetics to cell death. Here, we characterize a mouse model that lacks expression of the recently discovered mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU). Mitochondria derived from MCU-/- mice have no apparent capacity to rapidly uptake calcium. While basal metabolism appears unaffected, the skeletal muscle of MCU-/- mice exhibited alterations in the phosphorylation and activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase. In addition, MCU-/- mice exhibited marked impairment in their ability to perform strenuous work. We further show that mitochondria from MCU-/- mice lacked evidence for calcium-induced permeability transition pore (PTP) opening. The lack of PTP opening does not appear to protect MCU-/- cells and tissues from cell death, although MCU-/- hearts fail to respond to the PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA). Taken together, these results clarify how acute alterations in mitochondrial matrix calcium can regulate mammalian physiology.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Circ Res
                Circ. Res
                RES
                Circulation Research
                Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
                0009-7330
                1524-4571
                7 July 2017
                06 July 2017
                : 121
                : 2
                : 181-195
                Affiliations
                From the Unit of Cardiac Physiology, Division of Cardiovascular Sciences, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, University of Manchester, United Kingdom.
                Author notes
                Correspondence to David A. Eisner, 3.18 Core Technology Facility, 46 Grafton St, Manchester M13 9NT, United Kingdom. E-mail eisner@ 123456manchester.ac.uk
                Article
                00014
                10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.117.310230
                5497788
                28684623
                © 2017 The Authors.

                Circulation Research is published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the original work is properly cited.

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