Distant metastasis in early T1-2 (diameter≤5 cm) stage lung adenocarcinoma (ET-LUAD) patients largely affect treatment strategies in clinical practice. However, the associated mechanism remains unclear and related studies is less. This study aimed to establish and validate a novel nomogram to predict the risk of distant metastasis in ET-LUAD.
A total of 258 patients diagnosed with ET-LUAD and not receiving any treatment were recruited into this study. The patients were randomly divided into a training cohort and validation cohort in a ratio of 1:2. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to select the most significant predictive risk factors associated with distant metastasis in the training cohort. The established nomogram was validated by the consistency index (C-index), calibration curve, and decision curve analysis (DCA).
There were 124 patients with confirmed distant metastasis and 134 patients with non-distant metastases ET-LUAD were enrolled in the study. Multivariate logistic hazards regression analysis identified independent risk factors associated with distant metastasis to include platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios (PLR), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), neural-specific enolase (NSE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19 fragments (Cyfra211), which were included in the establishment of the nomogram. The nomogram achieved a high consistency (C-index=0.792), good calibration, and high clinical application value in the validation cohort.