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      Calcium-Binding Proteins S100A8 and S100A9: Investigation of Their Immune Regulatory Effect in Myeloid Cells

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          Abstract

          High expression levels of the calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 in myeloid cells in kidney transplant rejections are associated with a favorable outcome. Here we investigated the myeloid cell subset expressing these molecules, and their function in inflammatory reactions. Different monocyte subsets were sorted from buffy coats of healthy donors and investigated for S100A8 and S100A9 expression. To characterize S100A9high and S100A9low subsets within the CD14+ classical monocyte subset, intracellular S100A9 staining was combined with flow cytometry (FACS) and qPCR profiling. Furthermore, S100A8 and S100A9 were overexpressed by transfection in primary monocyte-derived macrophages and the THP-1 macrophage cell line to investigate the functional relevance. Expression of S100A8 and S100A9 was primarily found in classical monocytes and to a much lower extent in intermediate and non-classical monocytes. All S100A9+ cells expressed human leukocyte antigen—antigen D related (HLA-DR) on their surface. A small population (<3%) of CD14+ CD11b+ CD33+ HLA-DR− cells, characterized as myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), also expressed S100A9 to high extent. Overexpression of S100A8 and S00A9 in macrophages led to enhanced extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, as well as elevated mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10. The results suggest that the calcium-binding proteins S100A8 and S100A9 in myeloid cells have an immune regulatory effect.

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          A gene atlas of the mouse and human protein-encoding transcriptomes.

          The tissue-specific pattern of mRNA expression can indicate important clues about gene function. High-density oligonucleotide arrays offer the opportunity to examine patterns of gene expression on a genome scale. Toward this end, we have designed custom arrays that interrogate the expression of the vast majority of protein-encoding human and mouse genes and have used them to profile a panel of 79 human and 61 mouse tissues. The resulting data set provides the expression patterns for thousands of predicted genes, as well as known and poorly characterized genes, from mice and humans. We have explored this data set for global trends in gene expression, evaluated commonly used lines of evidence in gene prediction methodologies, and investigated patterns indicative of chromosomal organization of transcription. We describe hundreds of regions of correlated transcription and show that some are subject to both tissue and parental allele-specific expression, suggesting a link between spatial expression and imprinting.
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            Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system.

            Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of cells that expand during cancer, inflammation and infection, and that have a remarkable ability to suppress T-cell responses. These cells constitute a unique component of the immune system that regulates immune responses in healthy individuals and in the context of various diseases. In this Review, we discuss the origin, mechanisms of expansion and suppressive functions of MDSCs, as well as the potential to target these cells for therapeutic benefit.
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              Nomenclature of monocytes and dendritic cells in blood.

              Monocytes and cells of the dendritic cell lineage circulate in blood and eventually migrate into tissue where they further mature and serve various functions, most notably in immune defense. Over recent years these cells have been characterized in detail with the use of cell surface markers and flow cytometry, and subpopulations have been described. The present document proposes a nomenclature for these cells and defines 3 types of monocytes (classical, intermediate, and nonclassical monocytes) and 3 types of dendritic cells (plasmacytoid and 2 types of myeloid dendritic cells) in human and in mouse blood. This classification has been approved by the Nomenclature Committee of the International Union of Immunological Societies, and we are convinced that it will facilitate communication among experts and in the wider scientific community.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, The Netherlands; j.yang@ 123456lumc.nl (J.Y.); J.D.H.Anholts@ 123456lumc.nl (J.A.); Ulrike.Kolbe@ 123456med.uni-heidelberg.de (U.K.), J.A.Stegehuis-Kamp@ 123456lumc.nl (J.A.S.-K.); F.H.J.Claas@ 123456lumc.nl (F.H.J.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: m.eikmans@ 123456lumc.nl ; Tel.: +31-71-526-6722
                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                21 June 2018
                July 2018
                : 19
                : 7
                29933628 6073713 10.3390/ijms19071833 ijms-19-01833
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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