The objective of this study was to develop and validate a limited sampling strategy (LSS) that allows accurate and precise estimation of the area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) of nevirapine, when used in the licensed dosage of 200 mg twice daily. Because nevirapine has a long plasma elimination half-life and the plasma concentration shows little variation within the 12-hour dosing interval, the authors also wanted to explore whether a time frame exists for which a single-sample LSS can be applied. Twenty HIV-1-infected individuals receiving steady-state treatment with nevirapine (200 mg twice daily) were enrolled. For the development of the LSS, 10 patients were randomly selected from the study population (index set). The pharmacokinetic results from the other 10 patients (validation set) were used for prospective validation of the proposed LSS. Blood samples were obtained before and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 12 hours after ingestion. The relationship between the nevirapine concentration at each of the designated time points and the AUC 12h was evaluated by univariate and multivariate linear regression analysis. At each of the sampling times, a strong correlation was observed between the nevirapine concentration and the corresponding AUC 12h (r > 0.97). This allows for a single-sample LSS, using any time point during the dosing interval. When a single equation is preferred, the concentration of nevirapine in a random sample drawn 2 to 4 hours after ingestion of nevirapine (C 2-4h; in microg/mL) can be used for accurate estimation of the AUC 12h (in h x microg/mL) by using the equation AUC 12h (h x microg/mL) = 11.699 (h) x C 2-4h (microg/mL) - 4.381 (h x microg/mL). Validation of this equation resulted in a predicted AUC 12h that was nonbiased and very precise. These data show that the nevirapine concentration at each time point during the dosing interval can be used for accurate estimation of the AUC 12h. Even more practical, a sample obtained at any time between 2 and 4 hours after ingestion of nevirapine can be used. The authors therefore conclude that less intensive sampling (i.e., a single sample) can readily be used to assess the AUC 12h of nevirapine when used in a dosage of 200 mg twice daily.