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      What Does “Happiness” Prompt in Your Mind? Culture, Word Choice, and Experienced Happiness

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      Journal of Happiness Studies

      Springer Nature America, Inc

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          Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): a reevaluation of the Life Orientation Test.

          Research on dispositional optimism as assessed by the Life Orientation Test (Scheier & Carver, 1985) has been challenged on the grounds that effects attributed to optimism are indistinguishable from those of unmeasured third variables, most notably, neuroticism. Data from 4,309 subjects show that associations between optimism and both depression and aspects of coping remain significant even when the effects of neuroticism, as well as the effects of trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem, are statistically controlled. Thus, the Life Orientation Test does appear to possess adequate predictive and discriminant validity. Examination of the scale on somewhat different grounds, however, does suggest that future applications can benefit from its revision. Thus, we also describe a minor modification to the Life Orientation Test, along with data bearing on the revised scale's psychometric properties.
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            WHO IS HAPPY?

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              Spending money on others promotes happiness.

              Although much research has examined the effect of income on happiness, we suggest that how people spend their money may be at least as important as how much money they earn. Specifically, we hypothesized that spending money on other people may have a more positive impact on happiness than spending money on oneself. Providing converging evidence for this hypothesis, we found that spending more of one's income on others predicted greater happiness both cross-sectionally (in a nationally representative survey study) and longitudinally (in a field study of windfall spending). Finally, participants who were randomly assigned to spend money on others experienced greater happiness than those assigned to spend money on themselves.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Happiness Studies
                J Happiness Stud
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                1389-4978
                1573-7780
                March 2018
                January 6 2017
                March 2018
                : 19
                : 3
                : 649-662
                Article
                10.1007/s10902-016-9836-8
                © 2018

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