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      Effects of Unilateral Nephrectomy on Renal Function in Male Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats: A Novel Obese Type 2 Diabetic Model

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          Abstract

          The Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) fatty rat is a new model for obese type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 1/2 nephrectomy (Nx) on renal function and morphology and on blood pressure in SDT fatty rats. Male SDT fatty rats underwent 1/2 Nx or a sham operation (Sham). Subsequently, animals were studied with respect to renal function and histological alterations. Induction of 1/2 Nx in SDT fatty rats led to functional and morphological damage to the remnant kidney and to hypertension, which are considered main characteristics of chronic kidney disease, at a younger age compared with the sham group. In conclusion, the SDT fatty rat is useful in investigations to elucidate the pathogenesis of human diabetic nephropathy and in new drug discovery.

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          Most cited references 33

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          Cholesterol and the risk of renal dysfunction in apparently healthy men.

          Despite extensive knowledge about abnormal lipid patterns in patients with end-stage renal disease, the association between cholesterol and the development of renal dysfunction is unclear. We evaluated this association in a prospective cohort study among 4,483 initially healthy men participating in the Physicians' Health Study who provided blood samples in 1982 and 1996. Main outcome measures were elevated creatinine, defined as >/= 1.5 mg/dl (133 micromol/L), and reduced estimated creatinine clearance, defined as /= 240 mg/dl), HDL ( /= 40 mg/dl), total non-HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL. We used logistic regression to calculate age- and multivariable adjusted odds ratios as a measure for the relative risk. After 14 yr, 134 men (3.0%) had elevated creatinine and 244 (5.4%) had reduced creatinine clearance. The multivariable relative risk for elevated creatinine was 1.77 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10 to 2.86) for total cholesterol >/= 240 mg/dl, 2.16 (95% CI, 1.42 to 3.27) for HDL /= >6.8), and 2.16 (95% CI, 1.22 to 3.80) for the highest quartile of non-HDL cholesterol (>/= 196.1). Similar although smaller associations were observed between cholesterol parameters and reduced creatinine clearance. Elevated total cholesterol, high non-HDL cholesterol, a high ratio of total cholesterol/HDL, and low HDL in particular were significantly associated with an increased risk of developing renal dysfunction in men with an initial creatinine <1.5 mg/dl.
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            Glomerular and Tubular Damage Markers Are Elevated in Patients With Diabetes

            OBJECTIVE We investigated in a cross-sectional study the levels of serum and urinary damage markers in diabetic patients (n = 94) and nondiabetic control subjects (n = 45) to study the association of glomerular (IgG), proximal tubular (kidney injury molecule [KIM]-1, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase [NAG], neutrophil gelatinase–associated lipocalin [NGAL], and cystatin C), and distal tubular (heart fatty acid–binding protein [H-FABP]) damage markers with kidney disease severity, as assessed by albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Damage markers were measured in triplicate in fresh morning urine samples and in plasma. RESULTS Of the diabetic patients, 41 were normoalbuminuric, 41 were microalbuminuric, and 12 were macroalbuminuric. Urinary NAG (ninefold), NGAL (1.5-fold), and H-FABP (3.5-fold) were significantly elevated in normoalbuminuric diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic control subjects. Urinary concentrations of all markers increased per albuminuria stratum, except KIM-1. All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with albuminuria, independent of age, sex, and plasma concentrations of the corresponding biomarker (standard βs between 0.35 and 0.87; all P ≤ 0.001). All urinary damage markers, except KIM-1, were significantly associated with the eGFR in univariate models (standard βs between −0.38 and −0.21; all P < 0.04). After adjusting for age, sex, plasma concentration of the corresponding damage marker, and albuminuria, only the association of H-FABP with eGFR remained significant (standard β −0.26; P = 0.037). CONCLUSIONS Glomerular and tubular markers are associated with albuminuria, independently of eGFR, suggesting that albuminuria reflects both glomerular and tubulointerstitial damage. Only urinary H-FABP is associated with eGFR independently of albuminuria and, therefore, may be a promising urinary damage marker to assess diabetic kidney disease.
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              Blood Pressure Control, Proteinuria, and the Progression of Renal Disease

               John Peterson (1995)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Diabetes Res
                J Diabetes Res
                JDR
                Journal of Diabetes Research
                Hindawi Publishing Corporation
                2314-6745
                2314-6753
                2014
                10 August 2014
                : 2014
                Affiliations
                1Japan Tobacco Inc., Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Biological/Pharmacological Research Laboratories, 1-1 Murasaki-cho, Takatsuki, Osaka 569-1125, Japan
                2Japan Tobacco Inc., Central Pharmaceutical Research Institute, Toxicology Research Laboratories, 23 Naganuki, Hadano, Kanagawa 257-0024, Japan
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Masami Shinohara

                Article
                10.1155/2014/363126
                4142530
                Copyright © 2014 Yoshiaki Katsuda et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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                Research Article

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