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# Nanoparticle formulation by Büchi B-90 Nano Spray Dryer for oral mucoadhesion

Dove Medical Press

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### Abstract

Diabetes is considered one of the main threats to global public health in this era. It is increasing rapidly in every part of the world; the prevalence of the disease will grow to the point where 366 million people will be affected by 2030. The prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in the Saudi population is high, and the majority of patients suffer from type 2 DM. Marketed oral antidiabetic drugs have indicated poor tolerability during chronic treatments, and this contributes to the moderately large proportion of type 2 DM patients that remain inadequately managed. Vildagliptin nanospheres were prepared with aminated gelatin using a spray-drying method; narrow particle-size distribution was seen at 445 nm. The angle of repose was found to be θ <33.5°. The nanospheres appeared to be spherical with a smooth surface. The drug content and percentage yield of the nanospheres were found to be 76.2%±4.6% and 83%±2%, respectively. The nanosphere-swell profile was found to be 165%±7%. The pure drug was 100% dissolved in 30 minutes, and the nanosphere formulation took 12 hours to dissolve (97.5%±2%), and followed a Korsmeyer–Peppas kinetic model with an R 2 of 0.9838. The wash-off test of nanospheres found that they exhibited an excellent mucoadhesive property at 86.7% for 8 hours. The stability-study data showed no changes in the physicochemical properties of the nanospheres, and suggested that the nanospheres be stored below room temperature. The amount of vildagliptin retained was 1.6% within 3 hours, and in comparison with the gelatin vildagliptin nanoparticles formulation, the percentage that was retained was much higher (98.2% in 12 hours).

### Most cited references86

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### The burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries

(2005)
Background By the dawn of the third millennium, non communicable diseases are sweeping the entire globe, with an increasing trend in developing countries where, the transition imposes more constraints to deal with the double burden of infective and non-infective diseases in a poor environment characterised by ill-health systems. By 2020, it is predicted that these diseases will be causing seven out of every 10 deaths in developing countries. Many of the non communicable diseases can be prevented by tackling associated risk factors. Methods Data from national registries and international organisms are collected, compared and analyzed. The focus is made on the growing burden of non communicable diseases in developing countries. Results Among non communicable diseases, special attention is devoted to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer and chronic pulmonary diseases. Their burden is affecting countries worldwide but with a growing trend in developing countries. Preventive strategies must take into account the growing trend of risk factors correlated to these diseases. Conclusion Non communicable diseases are more and more prevalent in developing countries where they double the burden of infective diseases. If the present trend is maintained, the health systems in low-and middle-income countries will be unable to support the burden of disease. Prominent causes for heart disease, diabetes, cancer and pulmonary diseases can be prevented but urgent (preventive) actions are needed and efficient strategies should deal seriously with risk factors like smoking, alcohol, physical inactivity and western diet.
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### Protein release from gelatin matrices.

(1998)
Gelatin is a denatured, biodegradable protein obtained by acid and alkaline processing of collagen. This processing affects the electrical nature of collagen, yielding gelatin with different isoelectric points (IEPs). When mixed with positively or negatively charged gelatin, an oppositely charged protein will ionically interact to form a polyion complex. This review article describes protein release from charged gelatin matrices on the basis of this polyion complexation. The biodegradable hydrogel matrices are prepared by chemical crosslinking of acidic or basic gelatin and are enzymatically degraded in the body with time. The degradation is controllable by changing the extent of crosslinking, which, in turn, produces hydrogels with different water contents. The time course of protein release is in good accordance with the rate of hydrogel degradation. It is very likely that the protein drug complexed with gelatin hydrogel is released as a result of its biodegradation. This gelatin hydrogel system releases the protein drug under maintenance of biological activity. This article will focus on experimental data that sustained release of growth factor from the gelatin hydrogels is very effective in exerting the biological functions of the growth factor.
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### Diabesity: an overview of a rising epidemic.

(2010)
'Diabesity' is the term for diabetes occurring in the context of obesity. In this review, we will overview the latest epidemiological data available describing the rising prevalence, health impact and economic impact of diabesity. We will also outline the measures required to slowdown this newly evolving epidemic. The global prevalence of diabetes in 2010 was 284 million people worldwide constituting around 6.4% of the world population, which is higher than was projected in earlier studies. Furthermore, the projections for 2030 show the prevalence to reach 439 million individuals comprising ~7.7% of the world population. The burden of diabetes on the world economy has been rising steadily in the last decade to reach $376 billion in 2010 and is expected to reach$490 billion in 2030. Diabesity represents a substantial economic burden as reflected by diabetes and obesity consuming 14 and 5.7% of the USA's total health expenditure, respectively, representing the highest known expenditure on diabesity worldwide. When costs associated with being overweight were also included, the upper limit of obesity expenditure rises to 9.1% of the USA's total healthcare expenditure. The highest recorded expenditure on diabetes alone was in Saudi Arabia consuming 21% of the country's total health expenditure, with no data available about the health expenditure on obesity. The health impact of diabesity is substantial to include long-term diabetic complications, reduction in health-related functioning, reduction of quality of life and reduced overall life expectancy. Long-term complications include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular stroke and end-stage renal disease. Also recent advances have found that there is an association between chronic stress, depression and sleeping troubles to both diabetes and obesity. This century is the unprecedented diabetogenic era in human history. It is thus urgent to take steps including screening, prevention and early management in an attempt to control this evolving epidemic of diabesity.
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### Author and article information

###### Journal
Drug Des Devel Ther
Drug Des Devel Ther
Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Dove Medical Press
1177-8881
2015
23 January 2015
: 9
: 273-282
###### Affiliations
[1 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
[2 ]Department of Pharmaceutics, East Point College of Pharmacy, Bangalore, India
[3 ]Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia
###### Author notes
Correspondence: Sree N Harsha, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, PO Box 400, University Street, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia, Email sharsha@ 123456kfu.edu.sa
###### Article
dddt-9-273
10.2147/DDDT.S66654
4315564
25670882

The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

###### Categories
Original Research

Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine