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      Consecuencias hemodinámicas y respiratorias del síndrome compartimental abdominal en un modelo experimental Translated title: Hemodynamic and respiratory alterations in an experimental abdominal compartment syndrome model

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          Introducción: El síndrome compartimental abdominal (SCA) es una entidad grave, de escaso reporte en población pediátrica por una inadecuada alerta y reconocimiento. Puede ser originado por causas médicas y quirúrgicas, presentando una elevada mortalidad. objetivo: Determinar la magnitud de las consecuencias hemodinámicas y respiratorias iniciales desencadenadas por la inducción de un SCA en un modelo experimental. Método: Doce cerdos anestesiados (4,8 ± 0,1 kg). El SCA fue inducido con instilación de solución coloide en cavidad peritoneal para obtener una presión intra-abdominal (PIA) de 25 ± 5 mmHg. En condiciones basales y posterior a inducción del SCA se realizó monitorización hemodinámica convencional y termodilución transpulmonar. Paralelamente se midió gasometría arterial y análisis de mecánica pulmonar. resultados: Hubo una reducción del gasto cardíaco en 16% (5,19 ± 0,33 a 4,34 ± 0,28 l/min/m², p = 0,01) y de la presión de perfusión abdominal en 20% (72,3 ± 3,2 a 57,3 ± 4,0 mmHg, p < 0,001) sin cambios en frecuencia cardiaca, presión arterial y venosa central. Además ocurrió un deterioro de la compliance del sistema respiratorio cercana al 50% (1,28 ± 0,09 a 0,62 ± 0,04 ml/cmH2O/kg, p = 0,002) asociado a un incremento significativo en las presiones intratorácicas y disminución leve de la oxigenación. Discusión: En este modelo experimental se pudo apreciar el desarrollo temprano de disfunción hemodinámica y pulmonar. Se evidenció una reducción de gasto cardiaco no detectado por la monitorización convencional y un deterioro substancial de la mecánica pulmonar, propia de una enfermedad restrictiva, asociado a alteraciones leves del intercambio gaseoso. Creemos que es fundamental monitorizar la PIA en pacientes predispuestos a desarrollar un SCA, más aún ante empeoramiento de disfunciones orgánicas dado que la hipotensión e hipoxemia grave son signos tardíos de esta complicación.

          Translated abstract

          Introduction: Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a severe and under-reported condition among the pediatric population due to inadequate warning and recognition. It can be caused by medical and surgical reasons, resulting in a high mortality rate. objective: To determine the magnitude of the initial hemodynamic and respiratory consequences triggered by the induction of ACS in an experimental model. Methods: The model consisted of twelve anesthetized pigs (4.8 ± 0.1 kg). The ACS was induced by instillation of colloid solution in the peritoneal cavity to obtain an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) of 24.9 ± 0.6 mmHg. In basal conditions and after the ACS induction, a conventional hemodynamic monitoring and transpulmonary thermodilution were performed. At the same time, arterial blood gases and lung mechanics analysis were measured. results: There was a reduction of cardiac output by 16% (5.19 ± 0.33 to 4.34 ± 0.28 l/min/m², p = 0.01) and abdominal perfusion pressure by 20% (72.3 ± 3.2 to 57.3 ± 4.0 mmHg, p <0.001) without changes in heart rate, arterial or central venous pressure. In addition there was an approximately 50% worsening of respiratory system compliance (1.28 ± 0.09 to 0.62 ± 0.04 ml/cmH2O/kg, p = 0.002) associated with a significant increase in intrathoracic pressure and slight decrease in oxygenation. Discussion: In this experimental model, the early development of hemodynamic and pulmonary dysfunction could be observed. A reduction of cardiac output that was not detected by conventional monitoring and a substantial deterioration of lung mechanics, characteristic of restrictive disease, associated with mild alterations in gas exchange were reported. It is essential then to monitor the IAP in patients predisposed to develop ACS, especially in the case of organ dysfunction deterioration, as severe hypotension and hypoxemia are late signs of this complication.

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          Most cited references 63

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          Family-Centered Care: Current Applications and Future Directions in Pediatric Health Care

          Family-centered care (FCC) is a partnership approach to health care decision-making between the family and health care provider. FCC is considered the standard of pediatric health care by many clinical practices, hospitals, and health care groups. Despite widespread endorsement, FCC continues to be insufficiently implemented into clinical practice. In this paper we enumerate the core principles of FCC in pediatric health care, describe recent advances applying FCC principles to clinical practice, and propose an agenda for practitioners, hospitals, and health care groups to translate FCC into improved health outcomes, health care delivery, and health care system transformation.
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            Both primary and secondary abdominal compartment syndrome can be predicted early and are harbingers of multiple organ failure.

            Primary abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is a known complication of damage control. Recently secondary ACS has been reported in patients without abdominal injury who require aggressive resuscitation. The purpose of this study was to compare the epidemiology of primary and secondary ACS and develop early prediction models in a high-risk cohort who were treated in a similar fashion. Major torso trauma patients underwent standardized resuscitation and had prospective data collected including occurrence of ACS, demographics, ISS, urinary bladder pressure, gastric tonometry (GAP(CO2) = gastric regional CO(2) minus end tidal CO(2)), laboratory, respiratory, and hemodynamic data. With primary and secondary ACS as endpoints, variables were tested by uni- and multivariate logistic analysis (MLA). From 188 study patients during the 44-month period, 26 (14%) developed ACS-11 (6%) were primary ACS and 15 (8%) secondary ACS. Primary and secondary ACS had similar demographics, shock, and injury severity. Significant univariate differences included: time to decompression from ICU admit (600 +/- 112 vs. 360 +/- 48 min), Emergency Department (ED) crystalloid (4 +/- 1 vs. 7 +/- 1 L), preICU crystalloid (8 +/- 1 vs. 12 +/- 1L), ED blood administration (2 +/- 1 vs. 6 +/- 1 U), GAP(CO2) (24 +/- 3 vs. 36 +/- 3 mmHg), requiring pelvic embolization (9 vs. 47%), and emergency operation (82% vs. 40%). Early predictors identified by MLA of primary ACS included hemoglobin concentration, GAP(CO2), temperature, and base deficit; and for secondary ACS they included crystalloid, urinary output, and GAP(CO2). The areas under the receiver-operator characteristic curves calculated upon ICU admission are primary= 0.977 and secondary= 0.983. Primary and secondary ACS patients had similar poor outcomes compared with nonACS patients including ventilator days (primary= 13 +/- 3 vs. secondary= 14 +/- 3 vs. nonACS = 8 +/- 2), multiple organ failure (55% vs. 53% vs. 12%), and mortality (64% vs. 53% vs. 17%). Primary and secondary ACS have similar demographics, injury severity, time to decompression from hospital admit, and bad outcome. 2 degrees ACS is an earlier ICU event preceded by more crystalloid administration. With appropriate monitoring both could be accurately predicted upon ICU admission.
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              Clinicians' abilities to estimate cardiac index in ventilated children and infants.

              To evaluate the ability of clinicians involved in the provision of paediatric intensive care to estimate cardiac index in ventilated children, based on physical examination and clinical and bedside laboratory data. Clinicians were exposed to all available haemodynamic and laboratory data for each patient, allowed to make a physical examination, and asked to first categorize cardiac index as high, high to normal, low to normal, or low, and then to quantify this further with a numerical estimate. Cardiac index was measured simultaneously by femoral artery thermodilution (coefficient of variation 5.37%). One hundred and twelve estimates were made by 27 clinicians on 36 patients (median age 34.5 months). Measured cardiac index ranged from 1.39 to 6.84 1/min/m2. Overall, there was poor correlation categorically (kappa statistic 0.09, weighted kappa 0.169) and numerically (r = 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.06 to 0.41), although some variation was seen among the various levels of seniority. Assuming that objective measurement, and hence manipulation, of haemodynamic variables may improve outcome, these findings support the need for a safe, accurate, and repeatable technique for measurement of cardiac index in children who are critically ill.

                Author and article information

                Revista chilena de pediatría
                Rev. chil. pediatr.
                Sociedad Chilena de Pediatría (Santiago, , Chile )
                October 2012
                : 83
                : 5
                : 454-461
                orgnameUniversidad del Desarrollo/Clínica Alemana/Hospital Padre Hurtado orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Pediatría Chile
                orgnameUniversidad del Desarrollo/Clínica Alemana/Hospital Padre Hurtado orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Pediatría Chile
                S0370-41062012000500007 S0370-4106(12)08300507

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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