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      Concomitant Loss of p120-Catenin and β-Catenin Membrane Expression and Oral Carcinoma Progression with E-Cadherin Reduction

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          The binding of p120-catenin and β-catenin to the cytoplasmic domain of E-cadherin establishes epithelial cell-cell adhesion. Reduction and loss of catenin expression degrades E-cadherin-mediated carcinoma cell-cell adhesion and causes carcinomas to progress into aggressive states. Since both catenins are differentially regulated and play distinct roles when they dissociate from E-cadherin, evaluation of their expression, subcellular localization and the correlation with E-cadherin expression are important subjects. However, the same analyses are not readily performed on squamous cell carcinomas in which E-cadherin expression determines the disease progression. In the present study, we examined expression and subcellular localization of p120-catenin and β-catenin in oral carcinomas ( n = 67) and its implications in the carcinoma progression and E-cadherin expression using immunohitochemistry. At the invasive front, catenin-membrane-positive carcinoma cells were decreased in the dedifferentiated (p120-catenin, P < 0.05; β-catenin, P < 0.05) and invasive carcinomas (p120-catenin, P < 0.01; β-catenin, P < 0.05) and with the E-cadherin staining (p120-catenin, P < 0.01; β-catenin, P < 0.01). Carcinoma cells with β-catenin cytoplasmic and/or nuclear staining were increased at the invasive front compared to the center of tumors ( P < 0.01). Although the p120-catenin isoform shift from three to one associates with carcinoma progression, it was not observed after TGF-β, EGF or TNF-α treatments. The total amount of p120-catenin expression was decreased upon co-treatment of TGF-β with EGF or TNF-α. The above data indicate that catenin membrane staining is a primary determinant for E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and progression of oral carcinomas. Furthermore, it suggests that loss of p120-catenin expression and cytoplasmic localization of β-catenin fine-tune the carcinoma progression.

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          The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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            For the past 25 years NIH Image and ImageJ software have been pioneers as open tools for the analysis of scientific images. We discuss the origins, challenges and solutions of these two programs, and how their history can serve to advise and inform other software projects.
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              Normal keratinization in a spontaneously immortalized aneuploid human keratinocyte cell line

              In contrast to mouse epidermal cells, human skin keratinocytes are rather resistant to transformation in vitro. Immortalization has been achieved by SV40 but has resulted in cell lines with altered differentiation. We have established a spontaneously transformed human epithelial cell line from adult skin, which maintains full epidermal differentiation capacity. This HaCaT cell line is obviously immortal (greater than 140 passages), has a transformed phenotype in vitro (clonogenic on plastic and in agar) but remains nontumorigenic. Despite the altered and unlimited growth potential, HaCaT cells, similar to normal keratinocytes, reform an orderly structured and differentiated epidermal tissue when transplanted onto nude mice. Differentiation- specific keratins (Nos. 1 and 10) and other markers (involucrin and filaggrin) are expressed and regularly located. Thus, HaCaT is the first permanent epithelial cell line from adult human skin that exhibits normal differentiation and provides a promising tool for studying regulation of keratinization in human cells. On karyotyping this line is aneuploid (initially hypodiploid) with unique stable marker chromosomes indicating monoclonal origin. The identity of the HaCaT line with the tissue of origin was proven by DNA fingerprinting using hypervariable minisatellite probes. This is the first demonstration that the DNA fingerprint pattern is unaffected by long- term cultivation, transformation, and multiple chromosomal alterations, thereby offering a unique possibility for unequivocal identification of human cell lines. The characteristics of the HaCaT cell line clearly document that spontaneous transformation of human adult keratinocytes can occur in vitro and is associated with sequential chromosomal alterations, though not obligatorily linked to major defects in differentiation.

                Author and article information

                Role: Editor
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
                6 August 2013
                : 8
                : 8
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry, School of Life Dentistry at Tokyo, The Nippon Dental University, Tokyo, Japan
                [2 ]Department of Oral Surgery, School of Medicine, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa, Japan
                Wayne State University School of Medicine, United States of America
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Conceived and designed the experiments: KI. Performed the experiments: KS HS GM. Analyzed the data: KS KI. Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: SK. Wrote the manuscript: KI.


                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                This study was supported by a grant from JSPS KAKENHI 22592103. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.
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